282 8th ave rite aid

New US CHAdeMO chargers in May 2023

2023.06.06 12:37 boutell New US CHAdeMO chargers in May 2023

Here are all of the new US CHAdeMO (Leaf fast-charging) stations that rolled out in May 2023, according to the U.S. Department of Energy.
There were 124 "new" CHAdeMOs added in May. To put it in perspective, there were 112 CCS chargers added in April. I think the pace of CHAdeMO rollout has stabilized, while the pace of CCS rollout is still increasing. This makes sense given that only Nissan still makes a CHAdeMO car.
Some of these chargepoints will be "refreshes," e.g. the provider replaced them with faster chargers etc. Some may be incorrect. This report is only as good as the Alternative Fuels Data Center data.
We all know that CHAdeMO is a legacy format and will eventually go away, but clearly Nissan and their partners are continuing to support it for the time being. This shouldn't be surprising. After all, you can still buy a new Leaf.
If you'd like to know about new chargers along your routes right away, or reading these monthly reports is just frustrating in your state, I've set up a free service that provides email notifications only when new stations actually open. You can sign up at evpov.com. I built it to help EV owners like myself (especially my fellow Leaf owners). You can pick other plug types as well.
To streamline this post, multi-chargepoint locations are listed with the number of chargepoints first, so that's why the post is shorter than in previous months.
➡ CA (1) Fairfield Inn & Suites 8700 Spectrum Pkwy Bakersfield, CA 93308 (1) MOSSY CDJR DC 1 1875 Auto Park Ave Chula Vista, CA 91911 (3) DC CORRIDOR CHEVRON C DC 2 25032 W Dorris Ave Coalinga, CA 93210 (1) South Coast Collection (SoCo) 3303 Hyland Ave Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (1) SCPPA SCPPA CPE200T 1160 Nicole Ct Glendora, CA 91740 (1) Mojave Air & Spaceport (Building 1) 16922 Airport Blvd Mojave, CA 93501 (1) Albertsons 1345 (Morro Bay, CA) 730 Quintana Road Morro City, CA 93442 (1) CircleK - Palm Desert, CA 78005 Country Club Dr Palm Desert, CA 92211 (1) Hilton Garden Inn 20 Advantage Ct Sacramento, CA 95834 (1) BoA Hillcrest CA0-120 (San Diego, CA) 737 UNIVERSITY AVE San Diego, CA 92103 (1) WinCo Foods - Vacaville #60 855 Davis St Vacaville, CA 95687 ➡ CO (1) CITY OF ASPEN RIO GRANDE L3 427 Rio Grande Pl Aspen, CO 81611 (4) CSG EV BOULDER PL4 1500 Pearl St Boulder, CO 80302 (1) CircleK - Colorado City, CA 8950 S Interstate 25 Colorado City, CO 81004 (2) GPM INVESTMENTS 4590 DC1 8105 N Academy Blvd Colorado Springs, CO 80920 (2) KUM & GO CRAIG PL2 700 East Victory Way Craig, CO 81625 (1) DINO WELCOME DINOSAUR PL1 101 Stegosaurus Freeway Dinosaur, CO 81610 (2) PIKES PK CHARGE BA.CA.MI LLC #2 11027 US-24 Divide, CO 80814 (3) ANNEX SITE GEORGETOWN PL2 1120 Argentine Street Georgetown, CO 80444 (4) KUM & GO RIFLE PL4 705 Taugenbaugh Boulevard Rifle, CO 81650 (2) KUM & GO SB SPRINGS PL2 80 Anglers Drive Steamboat Springs, CO 80487 ➡ FL (1) JNKNS JACKSONVI DC FAST 2 11107 Atlantic Blvd Jacksonville, FL 32225 (1) Starbucks 9200 FL-228 Macclenny, FL 32063 (1) Ocean Cadillac 17800 Ipco Road Miami, FL 33162 (1) Sun Plaza 6339 W Colonial Dr Orlando, FL 32818 (1) BHY CHARGER 1 9915 E Adamo Dr Tampa, FL 33619 (1) Chase Bank - 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd Winter Springs, FL 32708 ➡ GA (1) GEORGIA POWER EPICENTER DC1 135 riverside parkway SW Austell, GA 30168 (1) JACKSON EMC GAINESVILLE 1000 Dawsonville Highway Gainesville, GA 30501 ➡ IN (1) AVON HYUNDAI SALES 8775 E 36 Avon, IN 46123 (1) HOC CHARGERS CHARGER #1 4200 E 96th St Indianapolis, IN 46240 ➡ KS (1) HATCHETT FRONT_WEST 11200 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 (1) HATCHETT BACK EAST 11330 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 ➡ KY (1) JEFF WYLER FH EXPRESS 250 949 Burlington Pike Florence, KY 41042 ➡ MA (6) MASSPORT TNC 4 226 Porter St Boston, MA 02128 (2) MASSPORT TAXI 4 56 Harborside Dr Boston, MA 02128 ➡ MD (2) POTOMAC EDISON ROCKY GAP DC1 16701 Lakeview Rd NE Flintstone, MD 21530 ➡ ME (1) DARLINGS HYUNDA SALES CHARGER 2 439 Western Ave Augusta, ME 04330 (2) IRVINGOIL ME-FFLD-L3-0001 206 Center Rd Fairfield, ME 04937 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 1 1930 Lisbon Street Lewiston, ME 04240 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 2 1938 Lisbon St Lewiston, ME 04240 ➡ MI (1) Belle Isle DC Fast Charge 176 Lakeside Dr Detroit, MI 48207 (1) Evergetic Charging Spa 330 South Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard Lansing, MI 48915 ➡ MN (1) WINNER GAS BROOKDALE DR 1500 Brookdale Dr Minneapolis, MN 55444 ➡ NC (1) CAPE HATTERAS AVON PIER DCFC2 41001 North Carolina Hwy 12 Avon, NC 27915 (1) AEMC- AEMC HQ FAST 125 Cooperative Way Hertford, NC 27944 (1) Chestnut Arbor 2925 Weddington Matthews Rd Matthews, NC 28105 ➡ NE (1) ERNST CHARGER 1 EAC CHARGER 615 23rd St E Columbus, NE 68601 ➡ NJ (1) ShopRite Carteret - Wakefern #511 801 Roosevelt Ave Carteret, NJ 07008 (2) FREEHOLDHYUNDAI VERIZON 1 4075 9 Freehold Township, NJ 07728 (2) CLASS 3 CHARGER HYUNDAI-2 250 Rte 4 Paramus, NJ 07652 (1) CIRCLEAUTOGROUP CH- CPE250 1 641 Shrewsbury Ave Shrewsbury, NJ 07702 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI CPE-250-02 3905 US 1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI RT1-01 3913 US-1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 ➡ NY (1) AAA WESTCENTRAL DC FAST CHARGER 100 International Dr Amherst, NY 14221 (2) KEELER STATION 6 1111 Troy Schenectady Rd Latham, NY 12110 (1) LEXUSMIDDLETOWN STATION 1 3496 US-6 Middletown, NY 10940 (3) BOB JOHNSON BOB JOHNSON KIA 3817 W Henrietta Rd Rochester, NY 14623 ➡ OH (2) CRESTMONT DRIVECRESTMONT2 2961 Center Rd Brunswick, OH 44212 (1) Hampton Inn - Canton 5256 Broadmoor Cir NW Canton, OH 44709 (1) JEFF WYLER EXPRESS 250 Loop @ Far Hills Centerville, OH 45459 (1) DONWOODAUTO DW CHEVY 2 12916 OH-664 Logan, OH 43138 (1) JEFF WYLER CORP 4- DC FAST 401 Milford Pkwy Milford, OH 45150 (1) Friendship Kitchen 70 3800 E. State Rd. Port Clinton, OH 43452 (1) Friendship Kitchen 83 4024 Hayes Ave. Sandusky, OH 44870 ➡ OK (1) EDMOND HYUNDAI EDMOND 4 14137 N Broadway Ext Edmond, OK 73013 ➡ OR (1) PGE IBEW 48 15937 NE Airport Way Portland, OR 97230 ➡ PA (1) DOYLESTOWN 024B1000008033 4465 W Swamp Rd Doylestown, PA 18902 (2) LIBERTY CHARWASH PL 2 2595 Maryland Road Willow Grove, PA 19090 ➡ PR (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA CPE 250 PKNG 2 106 Calle Acuarela Guaynabo, PR 00969 (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA FTZ120KW-2 1086 Ave. Muñoz Rivera San Juan, PR 00919 ➡ SC (1) Travelers Rest Municipal Complex 125 Trailblazer Dr Travelers Rest, SC 29690 ➡ TN (4) I24 EXIT11 STATION 1 (LL) 701 Sango Road Clarksville, TN 37043 (2) DISTRICT 2 STATION 1 (L) 28 S Park Ave Hohenwald, TN 38462 (2) LAWRENCEBURG STATION 2 (R) 2347 Hwy 43 N Leoma, TN 38468 (1) MB OF MEMPHIS STATION 1 5401 Poplar Ave Memphis, TN 38119 ➡ TX (1) Plaza de Oro 4450 W Jefferson Blvd Dallas, TX 75211 ➡ UT (2) VOLVO CAR USA SANDY DC 2 56 W 9000 S Sandy, UT 84070 ➡ VA (2) KOONS HYUNDAI STATION 1 1880 Opitz Blvd Woodbridge, VA 22191 ➡ WA (2) HANSON MOTORS HM3 QUICKCHARGE 2300 Carriage Loop SW Olympia, WA 98502 (1) Walmart 2539 - Spokane Valley, WA 15727 E Broadway Ave Spokane Valley, WA 99037 (1) 7054 -Vancouver, WA 98664 (10314 SE Mill Plain Road) 13014 SE Mill Plain Rd Vancouver, WA 98684 ➡ WI (1) BERG HYUNDAI VLI-L3-PDI-4 2900 N Victory Ln Appleton, WI 54913 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet of Coloma 1978 Charles Way Coloma, WI 54930 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet GMC of Marshfield 2701 S. Maple Ave Marshfield, WI 54449 
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2023.06.06 12:32 boutell New US CCS chargers report for May 2023

Here are all of the new US CCS (Level 3 fast-charging) stations that rolled out in May 2023, according to the Department of Energy. These chargers are suitable for most new EVs on the market, except for:
  1. Tesla drivers who haven't bought the official CCS adapter yet. Certain older Teslas need additional work done to accept the adapter.
  2. Leaf owners like me, and some owners of older cars that also use CHAdeMO. If you drive a Leaf, or an older CHAdeMO car, see my matching post in leaf.
Some of these chargepoints will be "refreshes," e.g. the provider replaced them with faster chargers etc. Some may be incorrect. This report is only as good as the Alternative Fuels Data Center data.
There were 222 CCS charge points added or refreshed in May 2023, which is up from 171 in April. For comparison, there were only 74 new CCS charge points in May 2022. Things are speeding up.
"What about CCS charging at Tesla superchargers?" Tesla is in the process of rolling out their "magic dock" for non-Tesla cars, but so far in very few locations. If they start doing this at scale and reporting it to the Alternative Fuels Data Center then it will be reflected here.
"What about Ford vehicles with NACS (Tesla) plugs?" They are not on sale yet. Current-generation Ford vehicles have CCS plugs. The next generation will have NACS (Tesla) plugs, but will also support CCS via an adapter.
If you'd like to know about new chargers along your routes right away, or just prefer not to check this list monthly when new openings are rare in your area, I've set up a free service that provides email notifications as soon as they open. You can sign up at evpov.com. Or not! I don't really have a business plan here, I built it to help EV owners like myself.
To streamline this post, multi-chargepoint locations are listed with the number of chargepoints first, so that's why the post is shorter than in previous months.
➡ AR (1) Franklin's Charging Little Rock 724 Woodrow St Little Rock, AR 72205 ➡ AZ (6) 942 E Parma Street (US-CMK-NVL-2A) 942 E Parma Street Gila Bend, AZ 85337 (1) Kroger Frys 62 (Mesa, AZ) 554 W Baseline Rd Mesa, AZ 85210 ➡ CA (1) Fairfield Inn & Suites 8700 Spectrum Pkwy Bakersfield, CA 93308 (1) MOSSY CDJR DC 1 1875 Auto Park Ave Chula Vista, CA 91911 (3) DC CORRIDOR CHEVRON C DC 2 25032 W Dorris Ave Coalinga, CA 93210 (1) South Coast Collection (SoCo) 3303 Hyland Ave Costa Mesa, CA 92626 (1) SCPPA SCPPA CPE200T 1160 Nicole Ct Glendora, CA 91740 (1) Chase Bank - 925 N Hacienda Blvd 925 N Hacienda Blvd La Puente, CA 91744 (1) WOODLANDHILLS ABB 24KW 01 22006 Erwin Street Los Angeles, CA 91367 (1) 7071 - Merced, CA (2020 Childs Ave) 2020 Childs Ave Merced, CA 95341 (1) Mojave Air & Spaceport (Building 1) 16922 Airport Blvd Mojave, CA 93501 (1) BMW MONROVIA OFF NETWORK 01 1425 Mountain Ave Monrovia, CA 91016 (1) Albertsons 1345 (Morro Bay, CA) 730 Quintana Road Morro City, CA 93442 (1) 3333 Fruitvale Ave 3333 Fruitvale Ave Oakland, CA 94602 (1) 7126 - Oakley, CA (5540 Bridgehead Road) 5540 Bridgehead Road Oakley, CA 94561 (1) CircleK - Palm Desert, CA 78005 Country Club Dr Palm Desert, CA 92211 (1) Hilton Garden Inn 20 Advantage Ct Sacramento, CA 95834 (1) BoA Hillcrest CA0-120 (San Diego, CA) 737 UNIVERSITY AVE San Diego, CA 92103 (1) WinCo Foods - Vacaville #60 855 Davis St Vacaville, CA 95687 ➡ CO (1) CITY OF ASPEN RIO GRANDE L3 427 Rio Grande Pl Aspen, CO 81611 (4) CSG EV BOULDER PL4 1500 Pearl St Boulder, CO 80302 (5) 1 Flatiron Crossing (US-ME8-73R-2B) 1 Flatiron Crossing Broomfield, CO 80021 (1) CircleK - Colorado City, CA 8950 S Interstate 25 Colorado City, CO 81004 (2) GPM INVESTMENTS 4590 DC1 8105 N Academy Blvd Colorado Springs, CO 80920 (2) KUM & GO CRAIG PL2 700 East Victory Way Craig, CO 81625 (1) DINO WELCOME DINOSAUR PL1 101 Stegosaurus Freeway Dinosaur, CO 81610 (2) PIKES PK CHARGE BA.CA.MI LLC #2 11027 US-24 Divide, CO 80814 (4) ANNEX SITE GEORGETOWN PL4 1120 Argentine Street Georgetown, CO 80444 (4) KUM & GO RIFLE PL4 705 Taugenbaugh Boulevard Rifle, CO 81650 (2) KUM & GO SB SPRINGS PL2 80 Anglers Drive Steamboat Springs, CO 80487 ➡ CT (1) BOA East Hartford CT2-120 (Hartford, CT) 805 E Main Street East Hartford, CT 06108 (1) HARTFORD BMW ABB OUTSIDE 1 Weston Park Rd Hartford, CT 06120 ➡ DE (1) First State Chevrolet 22694 DUPONT BLVD GEORGETOWN, DE 19947 ➡ FL (1) JNKNS JACKSONVI DC FAST 2 11107 Atlantic Blvd Jacksonville, FL 32225 (1) Simon Tampa Premium Outlets (Lutz, FL) 2300 Grand Cypress Dr Lutz, FL 33559 (1) Starbucks 9200 FL-228 Macclenny, FL 32063 (1) Ocean Cadillac 17800 Ipco Road Miami, FL 33162 (1) Sun Plaza 6339 W Colonial Dr Orlando, FL 32818 (1) Simon Orlando Vineland (Orlando, FL) 8200 Vineland Ave Orlando, FL 32821 (1) Simon Tyrone Square (St Petersburg, FL) 6901 22nd Ave N Peterburg, FL 33710 (1) BHY CHARGER 1 9915 E Adamo Dr Tampa, FL 33619 (1) Chase Bank - 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd 5601 Red Bug Lake Rd Winter Springs, FL 32708 ➡ GA (1) GEORGIA POWER EPICENTER DC1 135 riverside parkway SW Austell, GA 30168 (1) JACKSON EMC GAINESVILLE 1000 Dawsonville Highway Gainesville, GA 30501 ➡ IL (1) Castle Chevrolet North 175 N Arlington Heights Rd Elk Grove Village, IL 60007 (1) Sunrise Chevrolet 414 E N Ave Glendale Heights, IL 60139 ➡ IN (1) AVON HYUNDAI SALES 8775 E 36 Avon, IN 46123 (1) SHRM CHRG MERCEDESBENZFW 7227 W Jefferson Blvd Fort Wayne, IN 46804 (1) HOC CHARGERS CHARGER #1 4200 E 96th St Indianapolis, IN 46240 (1) Sullivan Cadillac 4040 SW College Rd Ocala, IN 34474 ➡ KS (1) HATCHETT FRONT_WEST 11200 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 (1) HATCHETT BACK EAST 11330 E Central Ave Wichita, KS 67206 ➡ KY (1) JEFF WYLER FH EXPRESS 250 949 Burlington Pike Florence, KY 41042 ➡ LA (1) All Star Automotive 12730 Airline Highway Baton Rouge, LA 70817 (1) Target T1469 (Monroe, LA) 4103 Pecanland Mall Dr Monroe, LA 71203 ➡ MA (6) MASSPORT TNC 4 226 Porter St Boston, MA 02128 (2) MASSPORT TAXI 4 56 Harborside Dr Boston, MA 02128 (1) Littleton Electric Light & Water Department 39 Ayer Road Littleton, MA 01460 ➡ MD (2) POTOMAC EDISON ROCKY GAP DC1 16701 Lakeview Rd NE Flintstone, MD 21530 ➡ ME (1) DARLINGS HYUNDA SALES CHARGER 2 439 Western Ave Augusta, ME 04330 (2) IRVINGOIL ME-FFLD-L3-0001 206 Center Rd Fairfield, ME 04937 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 1 1930 Lisbon Street Lewiston, ME 04240 (1) MOBIL ONTHEWAY STATION 2 1938 Lisbon St Lewiston, ME 04240 ➡ MI (1) Belle Isle DC Fast Charge 176 Lakeside Dr Detroit, MI 48207 (1) Meijer 254 (Hudsonville, MI) 4075 32nd Ave Hudsonville, MI 49426 (1) Evergetic Charging Spa 330 South Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard Lansing, MI 48915 (1) Genesis Cadillac 19900 E Nine Mile Road St Clair Shores, MI 48080 (1) MBSTL ENTRANCE ABB 1048 Hampton Avenue St. Louis, MI 63139 (1) Range USA Ypsilanti 660 James L Hart Pkwy Ypsilanti, MI 48197 ➡ MN (1) WINNER GAS BROOKDALE DR 1500 Brookdale Dr Minneapolis, MN 55444 ➡ MO (1) GM - Allen Christian Buick GMC Inc 724 W Business US Highway 60, Dexter, MO 63841 (1) Store 290 Joplin - 2101 S. Prigmore &I44 2101 S Prigmore Joplin, MO 64804 ➡ MS (1) 1685 High St 1685 High St Jackson, MS 39202 ➡ NC (1) CAPE HATTERAS AVON PIER DCFC2 41001 North Carolina Hwy 12 Avon, NC 27915 (1) Westcott Buick GMC 2410 S CHURCH ST BURLINGTON, NC 27215 (1) 9960 Poplar Tent Rd 9960 Poplar Tent Rd Concord, NC 28027 (1) AEMC- AEMC HQ FAST 125 Cooperative Way Hertford, NC 27944 (1) Capital Hyundai of Jacksonville 2325 N Marine Blvd Jacksonville, NC 28546 (1) Chestnut Arbor 2925 Weddington Matthews Rd Matthews, NC 28105 ➡ NE (1) ERNST CHARGER 1 EAC CHARGER 615 23rd St E Columbus, NE 68601 ➡ NH (1) Berlin City Chevrolet 545 MAIN STREET GORHAM, NH 03581 (2) Tanger Tilton Under Armour 06-07 120 Laconia Road Tilton, NH 03256 ➡ NJ (1) ShopRite Carteret - Wakefern #511 801 Roosevelt Ave Carteret, NJ 07008 (1) Lester Glenn Freehold 3712 Rte 9 Freehold, NJ 07728 (2) FREEHOLDHYUNDAI VERIZON 1 4075 9 Freehold Township, NJ 07728 (2) CLASS 3 CHARGER HYUNDAI-2 250 Rte 4 Paramus, NJ 07652 (1) CIRCLEAUTOGROUP CH- CPE250 1 641 Shrewsbury Ave Shrewsbury, NJ 07702 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI CPE-250-02 3905 US 1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 (1) ROUTE 1 HYUNDAI RT1-01 3913 US-1 South Brunswick Township, NJ 08852 (1) Lester Glenn Buick-GMC 230 RTE 37 E TOMS RIVER, NJ 08753 (1) Lester Glenn Chevrolet 398 Rt 37 Toms River, NJ 08753 ➡ NY (1) AAA WESTCENTRAL DC FAST CHARGER 100 International Dr Amherst, NY 14221 (2) KEELER STATION 6 1111 Troy Schenectady Rd Latham, NY 12110 (1) LEXUSMIDDLETOWN STATION 1 3496 US-6 Middletown, NY 10940 (1) Lerner NYC Station Plaza (Port Jefferson Station, NY) 5145 Nesconset Highway Port Jefferson Station, NY 11776 (3) BOB JOHNSON BOB JOHNSON KIA 3817 W Henrietta Rd Rochester, NY 14623 (1) Burr Truck Level 3 DC Fast Charge 2901 Vestal Rd Vestal, NY 13850 ➡ OH (1) Serra Chevrolet 3281 S Arlington Rd Akron, OH 44312 (1) Tim Lally Chevrolet 24999 Miles Rd Bedford Heights, OH 44128 (2) CRESTMONT DRIVECRESTMONT2 2961 Center Rd Brunswick, OH 44212 (1) Lambert Buick GMC 2409 FRONT ST CUYAHOGA FALLS, OH 44221 (1) Hampton Inn - Canton 5256 Broadmoor Cir NW Canton, OH 44709 (1) JEFF WYLER EXPRESS 250 Loop @ Far Hills Centerville, OH 45459 (1) DONWOODAUTO DW CHEVY 2 12916 OH-664 Logan, OH 43138 (2) WAG ABB STATION 1 8457 N Springboro Pike Miamisburg, OH 45342 (1) JEFF WYLER CORP 4- DC FAST 401 Milford Pkwy Milford, OH 45150 (1) Friendship Kitchen 70 3800 E. State Rd. Port Clinton, OH 43452 (1) Friendship Kitchen 83 4024 Hayes Ave. Sandusky, OH 44870 (1) Serpentini Chevrolet of Strongsville 15303 Royalton Rd Strongsville, OH 44136 (1) Don's Automotive Group 720 N SHOOP AVE WAUSEON, OH 43567 (1) Bush Auto Place 1850 Rombach Avenue Wilmington, OH 45177 ➡ OK (1) EDMOND HYUNDAI EDMOND 4 14137 N Broadway Ext Edmond, OK 73013 ➡ OR (6) 12000 SE 82nd Ave (US-H8H-UM5-2A) 12000 SE 82nd Ave Happy Valley, OR 97086 (1) PGE IBEW 48 15937 NE Airport Way Portland, OR 97230 ➡ PA (1) DOYLESTOWN 024B1000008033 4465 W Swamp Rd Doylestown, PA 18902 (2) LIBERTY CHARWASH PL 2 2595 Maryland Road Willow Grove, PA 19090 (1) Bergeys Inc 518 RTE 309 colmar, PA 18915 ➡ PR (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA CPE 250 PKNG 2 106 Calle Acuarela Guaynabo, PR 00969 (2) BMW AUTOGERMANA FTZ120KW-2 1086 Ave. Muñoz Rivera San Juan, PR 00919 ➡ RI (1) Paul Masse Chevrolet 1111 Taunton Ave East Providence, RI 02914 ➡ SC (1) Travelers Rest Municipal Complex 125 Trailblazer Dr Travelers Rest, SC 29690 ➡ TN (4) I24 EXIT11 STATION 1 (LL) 701 Sango Road Clarksville, TN 37043 (2) DISTRICT 2 STATION 1 (L) 28 S Park Ave Hohenwald, TN 38462 (2) LAWRENCEBURG STATION 2 (R) 2347 Hwy 43 N Leoma, TN 38468 (1) MB OF MEMPHIS STATION 1 5401 Poplar Ave Memphis, TN 38119 ➡ TX (1) Friendly Chevrolet 2754 North Stemmons Way Dallas, TX 75207 (1) Plaza de Oro 4450 W Jefferson Blvd Dallas, TX 75211 (1) Shell 3302 S Eastman Rd Longview, TX 75602 (1) 3220 Gulf Fwy 3220 Gulf Fwy Texas City, TX 77591 ➡ UT (2) VOLVO CAR USA SANDY DC 2 56 W 9000 S Sandy, UT 84070 ➡ VA (1) BLACKWELL D1 4874 Riverside Dr Danville, VA 24541 (1) Fleet Management Site (For Testing Purpose Only) 512 Herndon Pkwy Herndon, VA 20170 (6) 2577 Jeb Stuart Highway (US-TDM-SCC-1C) 2577 Jeb Stuart Highway Meadows of Dan, VA 24120 (5) 2203 Franklin Road Southwest (US-TUJ-L2K-2C) 2203 Franklin Road Southwest Roanoke, VA 24014 (6) 437 Tiffany Drive (US-CHT-WF7-2C) 437 Tiffany Drive Waynesboro, VA 22980 (2) KOONS HYUNDAI STATION 1 1880 Opitz Blvd Woodbridge, VA 22191 ➡ VT (1) Cody Chevrolet 364 RIVER ST MONTPELIER, VT 05602 ➡ WA (1) 7112 - Bellevue WA (12903 NE 20th Street) 12903 NE 20th Bellevue, WA 98005 (1) 7060 - Burlington, WA (1790 South Burlington Blvd) 1790 South Burlington Blvd Burlington, WA 98233 (1) 5507 - Everett, WA (901 Casino Road) 901 Casino Road Everett, WA 98204 (1) 7025 - Everett, WA (13131 Bothell Everett Hwy) 13131 Bothell Everett Hwy Everett, WA 98208 (1) 4397 - Kelso, WA (1700 Allen Street) 1700 Allen Street Kelso, WA 98626 (1) 7063 - Olympia, WA (1725 Evergreen Park Drive SW) 1725 Evergreen Park Drive SW Olympia, WA 98502 (2) HANSON MOTORS HM3 QUICKCHARGE 2300 Carriage Loop SW Olympia, WA 98502 (1) 7096 - Sequim, WA (51 Carlsborg Road) 51 Carlsborg Road Sequim, WA 98382 (1) Walmart 2539 - Spokane Valley, WA 15727 E Broadway Ave Spokane Valley, WA 99037 (1) 7054 -Vancouver, WA 98664 (10314 SE Mill Plain Road) 13014 SE Mill Plain Rd Vancouver, WA 98684 (1) 7059 - Woodinville, WA (13023 NE 175th St) 13023 NE 175th St Woodinville, WA 98072 ➡ WI (1) BERG HYUNDAI VLI-L3-PDI-4 2900 N Victory Ln Appleton, WI 54913 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet of Coloma 1978 Charles Way Coloma, WI 54930 (1) Wheelers Chevrolet GMC of Marshfield 2701 S. Maple Ave Marshfield, WI 54449 
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2023.06.06 10:22 labboy70 PE Classes: Starting in Jr High?

I grew up in California. 6th grade was our last year in elementary school then we moved to 7th and 8th grade at the Jr High school.
Having dedicated PE classes was a huge rite of passage for many kids. PE was required for everyone and classes were separated by gender. We also had almost 90 minutes of PE on a rotating schedule: 3 days one week, alternate week 2 days.
Uniforms were mandatory: school shirt, school shorts, jockstraps for the guys (that was a new experience for many of us), gym shoes and white athletic socks. They were militant about “dressing out” for class and you would lose points off your grade if you were not in the full uniform. For some reason, they seemed obsessed about wearing only white athletic socks in class…colored socks would lead to most certain skin infections. Showering was also another cringe-worthy time for many of us, never having to have group showers before. Skipping the shower would also lead to getting grades marked down.
I hated it at first. They worked us very hard with lots of activities and running. But, as I got more comfortable with my body and over feeling like a complete dork, I liked it.
High School we only had PE in Freshman and Sophomore year and it was much less militant.
Anyone else have rigorous Jr High PE classes? It seems that it is something else that changed for later generations and fell by the wayside.
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2023.06.06 08:10 Global_Relative_3177 Chapitre 18: Le tueur de garde

Bonne lecture.
Alors que Shedet rejoint le chantier de la grande porte, il décide de faire un crochet vers le tableau des primes. L’écho d’un attroupement, similaire à celui de l’annonce du chat, se propage dans la ville. Une opportunité semble à nouveau se créée. En effet dès son arrivé près du tableau l’annonce gravée sur la planche de bois l’emplit de joie, une nouvelle chance de s’attirer les faveurs du haut fonctionnaire. Sans toucher le moindre Sittiu, Shedet n’a nullement besoin de s’approcher tant les caractères sont gros et facile à comprendre. « Prime offerte d’une valeur choisit par le Sittiu ramenant la tête du tueur de gardes avant la fin du mois ». Shedet est bousculé puis écarté involontairement par la foule excitée face à l’annonce. N’ayant rien d’autre à faire dans les parages il rejoint le chantier l’esprit obscurcit par cette affiche. « Il est vrai que les soldats meurent de plus en plus en ce moment. Pas plus tard qu’hier un corps a semble-t-il été découvert dans les marécages, près de là où j’étais. Qui est l’inconscient perpétrant ces actes? Sans doute un Sittiu car un Égyptien ne se risquerait pas à tuer un des siens, autant de meurtres lui vaudrait la peine de mort et le déshonneur. Quoi que tuer d’anciens délinquants ne serait pas si préjudiciable. En tout cas Thot me donne une nouvelle chance de briller, la récompense est indéfinie, le prix de l’annonce sera mien ». Accroupit sur un bloc à le polir à l’aide d’une pierre plate et du sable, Shedet ne peut se résigner à penser à l’annonce. Il en oublie la douleur de ses courbatures tant l’opportunité est grande. Toutes les minutes son regard se porte dans le vide ou la sortie du chantier près de la tente du scribe. « Pendant que je perds mon temps le tueur se cache quelque part. Si un Sittiu le trouve il le protégera et il me sera impossible d’avoir ma récompense ». En calculant son temps de travail Shedet finit par réaliser qu’il n’aura jamais l’opportunité de traquer ce meurtrier. La pause durant le zénith est trop courte et le matin avant d’arriver aussi. Le seul moment propice reste durant la nuit cependant la fatigue et le manque de sommeil pourrait le pénaliser sur la durée. « Bon je dois faire un choix, j’ai de la nourriture et six jours devant moi pour trouver l’assassin. Dois-je me préoccuper de mon confort ou bien de mon avenir… et si cette traque ne menait à rien? Non, l’aventure avec le chat m’a redonné confiance, je ne dois pas me relâcher ». Les heures défilent tout comme les inlassables critiques des Sittiu sur son travail bâclé. Un bloc enfin taillé doit être amené au sommet de la pyramide.
— Hé le déchu! Pousse plus fort! crie Sammel désormais chef du groupe, t’as de la chance que Geburah sois plus là sinon il t’aurait massacré. Le regard plein de mépris, Shedet pousse le bloc puis une idée lui vient à l’esprit. « Je n’ai qu’a économiser mes forces durant le travail. L’autre déchet n’est plus ici ce qui me laisse tout le loisir d’en faire le minimum ». En effet depuis l’incident et toutes les mésaventures du nomarque, ce dernier a relancé le chantier avec un vieil homme pour contremaître, un Sittiu expérimenté mais stressé par l’ampleur de la tâche. Un nouveau scribe maître est disponible aussi, un fils de noble, en stage en quelque sorte, qui dirige le chantier avec une attitude désinvolte face aux personnes indignent de son rang. Tant qu’aucun accident ne se crée peu importe si les blocs s’empilent sur la pyramide. Le ciel étoilé prend enfin la place du soleil, dès ce moment Shedet retourne à son oasis cependant sa seule action est de récupérer son coffret de bijoux. « D’après ce que j’ai entendu le Sittiu a qui j’ai volé ce coffret est encore fou de rage, le plus drôle est qu’il ne peut se plaindre à quiconque ». En empoignant un bijou au hasard, il redescend puis débute aussitôt sa traque en commençant par Boubastis dans le quartier Shirazi. « Je le jure sur Thot, je retrouverai ce meurtrier quel que soit la fatigue qui m’accable ». Rejoignant la ville animée par les Sittiu, le déchu s’y aventure sans attirer l’attention. Son voyage s’achève près du marécage là où le dernier corps fut retrouvé, ses maigres pieds s‘enfoncent péniblement dans la vase. Craignant pour sa sécurité notamment les prédateurs et sangsues étrangement grosses, Shedet s’agrippe au plus large palmier. Sans problème il atteint le sommet puis attend patiemment. « Maintenant je comprends pourquoi le cadavre a été jeté ici, il se décompose plus rapidement mais le marécage est tout proche du palais du nomarque. Soit ce tueur est provocateur et donc très confiant ou bien c’est un amateur ce qui m’arrangera ». Durant la surveillance le moindre bruit le fit sursauter de joie, le claquement d’un objet contre un palmier, les animaux parcourant l’eau stagnante. Dans Boubastis, dont le côté Est est visible depuis son mirador, Shedet voit les Sittiu manger et discuter entre voisins. Chaque son dérangeant l’ambiance calme du lieu devient un signal de départ mais très vite Shedet s’ennuie. Impatient par manque de résultat il rejoint son plan B, Solal le receleur. « Et si je trouve ce meurtrier que ferai-je? Devrai-je le tuer? En réalité ce qui me terrifie le plus reste le nomarque, va-t-il subvenir à ma demande ou bien me donner un sac encore plus gros? ». Tel un rat galeux, Shedet est accueilli par les regards méprisant des Sittiu au quartier Savannah ne souhaitant qu’une chose le lyncher. Cependant de temps à autre de petits scarabées en titane survole les alentours. Des gardes minuscules et mécaniques armés de leur lampes dorées et quelques fois ce sont des chats à la cuirasse de carbone, dont le rôle est d’ordinaire la surveillance du palais, de flâner dans les rues. Il est facile de ressentir la détresse du nomarque en voyant les moyens inhabituels qu’il utilise. « Si seulement ces machines étaient plus fiables, elle permettraient de dénicher plus facilement le tueur. De toute manière cela m’arrange, la récompense sera à moi j’en suis absolument certain. Je le jure sur Thot, je réaliserai cet exploit, ces Sittiu ne paient rien pour attendre ». En entrant dans la boutique de Solal, ce dernier l’accueille de manière désinvolte tout en se coupant ses longs ongles.
— J’ai besoin d’une information…
— A propos du tueur de garde je sais, tu me prends pour qui le déchu? Tu penses vraiment que je vais dénoncer l’un de mes congénères? — Et en échange de cela ta langue se déliera-t-elle? dit Shedet en balançant la boucle d’une ceinture du bout de son index. — Où l’as-tu déniché? s’écrie-t-il en en tentant de la prendre, tu sais combien ce bijoux vaut? — Je l’ai volé chez le nomarque, maintenant donne-moi une information et une bonne. — Le tueur fait partie de la secte des crocs d’Apep, donne-la moi maintenant! — Je le sais déjà, moi je veux un nom, quelque chose qui me permettra de le coincer. N’ayant aucune autre réponse Shedet se retire du magasin miteux, le coeur de Solal se déchire en voyant partir le bijou scintillant. « apparemment je vais devoir me débrouiller seul, foutu solidarité! ». Sans autre plan Shedet rejoint à nouveau le marécage dans l’espoir de coincer le meurtrier. Le lever du soleil et le tintamarre matinal de Boubastis réveillent le déchu en sursaut. Il perd appui du haut du palmier et tombe dans l’eau putride et boueuse. « Martyrisé de bon matin, bon sang! Par Thot, je me suis endormi! ». Ayant peur que quelqu’un le surprenne aux alentours, Shedet s’enfuit en direction du chantier, la colère le ronge surtout lorsqu’il emprunte la rue adjacente à l’allée principale de Bastet. Un attroupement près d’une ruelle est rapidement dispersé par les gardes. L’un des soldats a été retrouvé, la gorge partiellement tranchée et une vingtaine de coups de couteau dans le dos et le ventre pour semble-t-il l’achever. Shedet s’approche juste assez pour pouvoir épier les chuchotements des soldats. — Par Amon! s’exclame le jeune garde agenouillé près du cadavre, c’est le douzième ce mois-ci. — Me dis pas que tu as peur? — Bien sûr que non! En plus on parle de Hotéphrès. Il devait être vraiment être ivre pour pouvoir être tué de cette manière. Restons sur nos gardes et continuons les affaires comme si de rien n’était, regarde le tueur est un amateur et il sera massacré dans peu de temps. — Tu parles, répond son collègue sur un ton pessimiste, à ce rythme on sera décimé si on ne fait rien correctement. J’ai aussi entendu les conversations de ces déchets de Sittiu, aucun d’eux va se bouger, quel que soit la récompense. En tout cas voyons les choses du bon côté nos parts seront plus grasses sans ce sac à purin, ajoute-t-il en frappant du pied le cadavre de son ancien collègue. On pourra aussi massacrer une de ces pourritures sans problème. La conversation coupe court lorsque le protecteur royal à tête de chat les rejoints pour emmener le corps. Ce cadavre, étant Égyptien, sera momifié aussi simplement que possible selon les rîtes sacrés puis donné à sa famille, si il en a une. Shedet est loin près du chantier Est, ne voulant pas se trainer la boucle de ceinture il l’échangea à une mégère contre une vingtaine de galette de pain. Le stress l’assaille, non seulement il lui reste peu de temps pour capturer le tueur mais surtout les gardes s’y mettent. « Bon, mes rondes devront être plus discrète, pense-t-il en dévorant une galette, ce soir je parcours les rues à la recherche de mon futur ticket pour la liberté ». Au chantier rien n’est plus pareil sans Geburah, enfin selon les points de vue. Le déchu est désormais serein sans personne pour le surveiller étroitement, l’ancien contremaître attisait les tentatives de meurtres. De plus aucun coup de poing ne lui caressera pas les dents et les côtes. Le travail devient moins pénible et presque amusant avec l’habitude, aider à la construction de la plus grande pyramide du royaume devient gratifiant. En revanche pour les Sittiu c’est la débandade, plus de joie, plus d’amusement avec leur ancien chef adoré. Seul le tintement des burins, les barrissements du nouvel éléphant gris et le son des cordes tirant des blocs alimentent le chantier. Raphaël l’estropié travaille comme artisan avec les vieux et invalides, apparemment la colère le ronge un peu plus chaque jour. Le nouveau scribe est mentalement absent, encore un fils de noble venu par défaut en ces lieux. Il passe le plus clair de son temps à s’endormir sans prendre la peine de vérifier si le travail est fait correctement. En tout cas les Sittiu savent comment poursuivre les travaux grâce aux indications de Sammel, Geburah lui avait donné des instructions dans le but que ces congénères ne subissent pas les foudres du nomarque, car le scribe a peu de chance d’être tenu pour responsable. La journée de travail s’achève enfin pas pour tout le monde, Shedet range son matériel dans la charrette de Solal après avoir passé l’après-midi à ressentir les regards furieux et meurtrier de ses collègues de travail. Le licenciement de Geburah leur reste toujours au travers de la gorge, quand au scribe sa destination sera sûrement l’un des quartiers huppé de Ouaset ou alors simplement le grand palais du nomarque. Aujourd’hui est la fin de semaine, un jour particulier pour les Sittiu, en effet dès le coucher du soleil la population entière de Boubastis se rassemble à la nécropole situé au Nord-Ouest du nome. Shedet a déjà eu l’occasion de voir les lueurs de la cérémonie depuis le sphinx de son oasis. Dès ce moment les Sittiu commémorent le décès des hommes, femmes et enfants durant la semaine. Les tombes, creusées profondément dans le sol plat et poussiéreux, sont fleuris avec des bouquets ainsi que l’objet dont le défunt dépendait le plus. Shedet a toujours mal compris leurs rites, contrairement aux Égyptiens, les morts Sittiu sont simplement lavés à l’eau, entourés d’un simple linceul puis enterrés à exactement cinq mètres sous le sol, ni plus ni moins. La position du corps est indiquée par une pierre rectangulaire posé sur la terre. Ensuite les morts des semaines précédentes sont listés durant un poème presque sacré, chaque défunt est décrit à l’aide d’une seule phrase puis inscrite sur sa pierre tombale. Pour la première fois depuis sa déchéance Shedet se mêle à la foule dans l’espoir de trouver le tueur de garde. Il marche entre les habitants agglutinés les yeux pleins de larmes devant la tombe de leurs proches. « Je suis sûr que ces chiens connaissent l’identité du meurtrier, il me suffit de guetter et d’attendre la moindre information. J’espère que sous cette cape personne ne me remarquera sinon je finirai dans une tombe sans pouvoir rejoindre Osiris ». Dans la foule, les Sittiu pleurent notamment les femmes ayant perdu un mari mais la mélancolie n’est pas aussi forte que le croyait Shedet. Cette semaine, la catastrophe provoqué par le déchu a tué plus de personne qu’a l’accoutumé heureusement la plupart étaient veuf ou seul sans famille. Des bougies faites de graisse animal et aromatisé avec de l’encens sont disposées sur chaque planche tombale tandis que le doyen du nome, un homme grand et malingre aux cheveux tressé et grisâtre, déclame un discours, le même que toutes les semaines: — N’oublions pas nos frères, soeurs, pères, mères, grand-pères, grand-mères tombés cette semaine. Ils rejoindront comme tous les autres le Tout-Puissant et attendrons que l’heure arrive. Mes compatriotes ne soyez ni envieux, ni découragés car la mort nous frappera tous sans distinction et punira les pêcheurs tout comme elle jugera les bons selon nos actes. Le sermon continu alors que tous les Sittiu écoutent patiemment dans l’obscurité, le visage illuminé par de simples bougies. « Quelles balivernes! Par Thot, comment notre grand Pharaon peut laisser ces chiens effectuer ce rite insensé. Je dois rester calme, j’en vois qui se déconcentre petit à petit ». Shedet rejoint d’un pas léger le groupe de Geburah, ce dernier est debout, les mains jointes, absorbé par le discours sauf Sammel et Raphaël, il rumine toujours le regard fixe sur sa jambe amputée. Geburah le frappe à la tête lorsqu’il émet des grognements d’impatience. — Respecte nos morts, crétin. — Je fais ce que je veux, toute la journée j’ai dû me farcir le doyen. Il me bassinait avec les autres estropiés de ces sermons sans fin. J’aurai du lui ouvrir le crâne avec un des marteaux lorsque je les nettoyais. — Oy, fais attention à ce que tu dis Raphaël, ton handicap m’empêchera pas de te mettre une raclée. — Je crois que je vais faire comme nos camarades et devenir un tueur de garde. La colère déborde en moi et personne ne soupçonnera un handicapé. La discussion s’achève subitement, les tensions dans le groupe sont devenues plus fréquente à la grande de joie de Shedet s’éclipsant afin de chercher d’autres indices. Deux femmes assez vieilles, assises sur des chaises ne prêtent guère attention aux paroles du doyen toujours à citer les noms des disparus. — Natalia, hier j’ai cru voir le tueur, tu penses que c’est Tôm? — Idiote, il est mort il y a vingt ans, ta mémoire défaille pauvre folle. — Ne m’en parle plus, reprend-elle, voir un homme écartelé reste un spectacle effroyable. Mais alors qui ai-je vu courir dans les ruelles la nuit dernière? Il portait un masque en laiton, un turban bleu et une cape. On aurait dit un esprit ou pire un djinn. — Vieille chouette, vocifère Natalia, tu divagues complètement, le tueur est sûrement l’un d’entre nous et je parierai mon pied boiteux qu’il se trouve en ce moment même parmi-nous. — Avoue-le, c’est toi Natalia? — Pauvre sotte! Je peux à peine marcher, comment veux-tu que je tue un de ces gardes bien entrainé? De toute manière je refuse de toucher la moindre parcelle de peau d’un de ces égyptiens. La discussion s’étale sur des ragots aussi faux que le sont leurs cheveux, Shedet fulmine de rage lorsqu’il entend des insultes sur son peuple. « Je le savais! Le tueur est ici mais je doute qu’il frappe ce soir, soit c’est un malin soit il a des obligations morales qui pourrait le rendre suspect en cas d’absence. Par Thot, rien n’avance, c’est encore plus difficile que d’apprendre à lire avec mon maître ». La cérémonie va bientôt prendre fin cependant Shedet surprend une dernière conversation entre un homme et une femme de son âge. Un couple d’après la proximité qu’ils entretiennent. La demoiselle pleure beaucoup sans émettre de son, les larmes finissent par tremper le sol poussiéreux entre ses pieds. — Allons Tâmâr, calme-toi, je sais que c’est difficile mais tu dois accepter son sort. — D’abord mon frère et maintenant mon amie, halète-t-elle, le Tout-Puissant n’arrête pas de m’accabler de chagrin. — Chut ne dis pas cela, c’est une épreuve. Remercie-le et tu verras qu’il te débarrassera de ta mélancolie. Prie pour qu’il t’accorde une bénédiction. — Hier tu avais parlé avec le voisin, dit-elle en séchant ses larmes, que te racontait-il? — Apparemment quelqu’un aurait volé les vêtements de Eber, celui qui tuait les gardes. Heureusement le nomarque n’est pas encore au courant mais comme il s’y intéresse depuis peu je pense qu’il nous interrogera tous bientôt; il enlace son épouse et ajoute, oublie ces histoires. Dès que nous rentrerons je te ferai une bonne soupe. Les regards des Sittiu sur le déchu deviennent un peu trop malsain, la fin de son investigation s’achève aussitôt. En chemin sur son oasis, Shedet avait fait un détour dans Boubastis mais aucun garde n’eut été tué, en tout cas pas dans le quartier des artisans. Comme prévu cela renforce son hypothèse. « Bon, d’après mes renseignements le meurtrier aurait dérobé les vêtements de l’ancien tueur. Je connais sans doute son physique grâce aux vieilles, en tout cas c’est forcément un Sittiu. A moins que je ne me trompe lourdement mais de toute manière il m’est difficile d’enquêter sans risquer ma vie. Il faut que je le trouve aussi vite que possible, la récompense doit me revenir pour que je quitte cet endroit ». Le lendemain soir Shedet avait poursuivit dans les rues un individu munit d’une cape, il s’avéra en réalité être un simple enfant jouant le fantôme. Le déchu faillit perdre la vie à cause de la mère du petit. Cette nuit aucun mort ne fut déploré, les gardes aussi cherche ce tueur mais seulement dans l’espoir d’obtenir la récompense. Des rivaux supplémentaires. Le surlendemain Shedet s’endormi durant sa surveillance, la fatigue fut si forte qu’il manqua de peu sa présence au chantier. L’affaire du tueur commence à le rendre fou, seul enquêteur contre tous difficile de garder le moral. Durant la pause sur le chantier, Shedet dévore ses galettes de pain jusqu’au moment où un visiteur lui glisse une parole en passant près de lui. C’est Solal venu déposer les outils polis et nettoyés à l’aide de sa bourrique. En faisant mine de serrer la selle de sa monture il chuchote: — Si tu as encore un de ces bijoux viens me voir, j’ai une information valable uniquement ce soir. Il s’enfuit aussitôt laissant Shedet perplexe toujours à dévorer sa dernière galette de pain. « Je suis à deux doigts d’abandonner cette traque stupide. Non c’est décidé, j’irai l’écouter tant pis si cela me coute un bijou. Si son information ne donne rien j’arrête sinon je pense mourir d’épuisement, des occasions il y en aura sûrement d’autres ». Le soir même, Shedet rejoignit la quincaillerie de Solal, munit cette fois d’un pendentif à l’effigie d’une vache, symbole de la déesse Isis. Le soleil commence à disparaitre et filtre à travers les ruelles. Le quincaillier polissait un burin en cuivre afin de lui rendre son éclat d’origine toutefois il s’interrompit aussitôt en voyant Shedet. — Tu as mis trop de temps le déchu! Mon information n’est peut-être même plus valable. — Donne-la moi quand-même, dit Shedet d’un ton las en lui jetant le pendentif sur la table. — Bon j’ai très souvent entendu le nom d’un garde très peu aimé par les Sittiu du quartier Félis. Depuis quelques temps il raquette les femmes. Si tu te dépêches tu pourras le retrouver et le suivre, avec de la chance le tueur de garde sera présent. — Et qu’est ce qui me dis que ce n’est pas un piège? Si j’y vais je risque de me faire lyncher ou arrêter par un garde sur un malentendu. — Libre à toi de suivre cette voie, dit Solal en contemplant le bijou étincelant sous tous les angles. Solal lui fit part du nom du garde: Chabti, le déchu le connait pour sa violence gratuite envers les Sittiu du nome. Il les extorque au chantier depuis son transfert cela fait bientôt deux semaines, néanmoins ses invectives se sont accrues. Obtenir la part du butin de ses collègues décédés a forcément réveillé ses instincts de malotru. Comme tout ancien délinquant il a dû se reconvertir en garde avant de commettre la bêtise de trop et finir dans les mines du mont Cobra. — Que Dieu t’accompagne, dit Solal en voyant Shedet sortit précipitamment de l’atelier. Sprintant à toute vitesse le déchu rejoint le quartier Félis situé à dix minutes de marche. « Pourquoi n’y avais-je pas pensé plus tôt, tous ces gardes sont des pourritures et ils profitent de leur statut pour soumettre la population. Toutefois ce Chabti sort du lot, moi aussi j’ai souvent entendu son nom. Cela m’étonne que ce garde soit encore vivant même si je sens qu’il risque de ne pas le rester ».
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2023.06.06 07:27 VileNonShitter RSV vaccine was just approved

GSK's vaccine for RSV is going to be a huge driver of profits at Rite Aid.
submitted by VileNonShitter to RiteAidInvestor_RAD [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 07:10 djr4917 VicRoads lying about a pothole that caused extensive damage.

Hi, I hit a pothole on the 8th of July 2022 at around 8pm on the Western Freeway leaving Ballarat which wrecked my car pretty bad. Over $2000 worth of damage. I submitted a request form for compensation and was only just finialised today.
VicRoads denied me compensation on the grounds that they did inspections on the 5th and 8th of July and found no defects in the road. However I went back the morning after on the 9th at 11:30am to take a photo of the pothole that I used for the claim. So it was clearly there and they clearly lied about the inspections.
I've had a rough past couple of years and am seething because I knew they'd try something so I'm making this post now in the hopes I can calm down before calling VicRoads and abusing the poor call centre lady I always seem to get on the half a dozen times I called over the past year.
But what are my options? Should I complain to VicRoads, talk to a legal aid (I know nothing about this process) or is there another body I can talk too? Also what documentation should I have at the ready?
submitted by djr4917 to AusLegal [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 05:00 Glittering_Ad4922 Finally happened again!

Finally happened again!
So a couple weeks ago I made a post about how I was getting a dash to go to someone's house and it was labeled Taco bell thankfully i remembered to screenshot. This time on the acceptance screen it said "May need returns" has anyone seen this before? This is the third one I've gotten and I've just seen it as a glitch. Anyone that dashes in the Helena MT market knows that there's no taco bell in the downtown area. Lol
submitted by Glittering_Ad4922 to doordash_drivers [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 04:28 moistbrisket17 Things to do June 6th-11th

PSA: There’s no tolerance for racist, homophobic, discriminatory, troll or unhelpful comments. If a post about events in DFW triggers you, keep on scrolling. I have zero Fs to give so if you insist on commenting something unhelpful, you’ll never have to be subjected to these free, helpful posts again bc you’ll be blocked.
This is not a top things to do in FW (plenty of posts if you search this sub), these are events specific to this week. There may be mistakes/things change so do your due diligence & search more info online. None of these events are vetted, they’re just copied & pasted.
Join the Fort Worth discord to connect w/other folks in FW, chat & check out different meet ups: https://discord.com/invite/9KUdWdQVdJ
[Tuesday June 6th]
Art Aid 4:30-6PM The Pool, 1801 8th Ave Free This seminar will offer real estate advice for artists looking to purchase, lease, sublet, or partner for a creative space.
Free Yoga Burnett Park 5:30PM
Silent Book Club Hotel Dryce 6:30PM
Trivia Game Night 7p Old Chicago Join us for great food, fun & PRIZES!
Murf’s Trivia J. Gilligan's Bar & Grill 7PM Triple Play Trivia
NoiseROT Presents: Strange and Eternal Tour (2023) w/ MYCHILDREN MYBRIDE The Rail Club Live 7PM $20+
Omar Torres Hyena’s Comedy Club Free 7PM
Geeks Who Drink Trivia Night T&P Tavern Free 7:30-9:30PM
Geeks Who Drink Trivia Night University Pub FW 8-10PM Free
Toad the Wet Sprocket Tannahill's Tavern & Music Hall 8PM $40+
[Wednesday June 7th]
Lunchtime Music Series in Burnett Park 12-1P Free
Indoor Vendor Market Rahr & Sons Brewing 5-9P enjoy 25+ local businesses to shop, live music, food trucks, snacks, sweets, acrylic paint pouring class
Ronda Ray at Fort Brewery & Pizza 6-9P
We Run Wednesday’s The trailhead at clearfork 6:30P
NoiseROT Presents: Victim of Suffering live at Haltom Theater Sidestage 7-11PM
Tall Bearded Guy Trivia Funky Picnic Brewery 7P
STFU Open MicJun 7, 8:00pm - 11:00pm Twilite Lounge FW check out the longest running comedy open mic in FW! Free jokes, drink specials & delicious po' boys! Hosted by Claws Out Comedy w/featured performer Marissa Nieto
Karaoke HopFusion Aleworks 8PM
[Thursday June 8th]
Fort Worth Movies That Matter Modern Art Museum 7-9:30PM Ernie & Joe: Crisis Cops (2019, 96 min., TV-MA) is an intimate portrait of two Texas police officers who are helping change the way police respond to mental health calls Movies That Matter is a FREE, bi-monthly film series that highlights important human & civil rights issues. Each event features a film screening, followed by a moderated discussion w/special guests. Register for free tickets on Eventbrite
Join us every second Thursday to connect with art through cocktails, conversations, & creativity The Carter 5-8PM
Beatles vs. Stones Ridglea Theater 6:30P Jam to a musical showdown $25+
Justin Tipton Fort Brewery Pizza 7PM
Greater Tuna Downtown Cowtown at the Isis June 8-10 8PM comedy show
Anand Wilder of Yeasayer The Post at River East 8P $25+
Midnight River Choir Live Rusty Nickel IceHouse 6PM $10+
Tribute Band Thursday: Local Yoakam Jun. 8 8 p.m. Fat Daddy’s, Mansfield Free live music, Happy Hour drink specials & $12 build-your-own jumbo pizzas
Evenings on Oak Street: Roanoke Austin Street Plaza 6:30PM After Party: Modern Dance Party Hits
Geeks Who Drink Trivia Night HopFusion Aleworks 8P
[Friday June 9th]
Friday on the Green, Magnolia Green Grab your lawn chair for live music from four local musicians 5-10P free
Kimbell Happy Hour 5-7P Kimbell Art Museum free music by Allegro Guitar Society
Dustin Massey w / Generational Wealth at Lola's Doors 8:00pm, Start 9:00pm
Brent Cobb Billy Bob's Texas 6PM $18+
Koe Wetzel Dickie’s Arena 6:30P $39
Kung Fu Vampire Black Heart Machine Tour Haltom Theater 7:30PM
Stockyards Championship Rodeo Cowtown Coliseum 7:30P free
Neon Wave Pool Party Whiskey Garden 8PM
Jimmy Wallace at Twilite Lounge FW 9PM-12AM No Cover
FWSO’s Concerts in the Garden Festival Gates open 6:30 p.m. start 8:30 p.m. Music of the 80s
Dustin Massey (Band) w/ Generational Wealth at Lola's Doors 8pm Show 9pm $10 advance tickets, $15 at the door
Tab Benoit Tannahill's Tavern & Music Hall 8P $40
REYES - Nuestra Fiesta Dedicada a la Realeza de la Música Latina Tulips FW 9P $15
[Saturday June 10th]
Drag Show & Brunch Pride Edition 11AM-2PM Funky Picnic Brewery Join Kiki w/the Kweens for our monthly drag show & brunch!
Glizzy Fest presented by Fletcher’s Original Corny Dogs Martin House Brewing 12-5pm Family Friendly, Live Music, Craft Vendors, & all the hot dogs/corn dogs you could dream of. Tickets $15 if drinking = 4 beers + souvenir pint glass. Those not drinking do not have to pay.
Arlington Pride Celebration the Levitt Pavilion Arlington 6-11pm (doors open at 5) ft. performances from RuPaul's Drag Race Queens Angeria Paris VanMichaels, Symone & Kennedy Davenport, DJ Al Farb & a host of other entertainment on stage along w/a street fair full of vendors
FWSO’s Concerts in the Garden Festival Gates open 6:30 p.m. start 8:30 p.m. Star Wars
Wandering Roots Market Tanger Outlets 15853 North Freeway Shop local pop-up, live music, vendors, food trucks + kid-friendly 10AM-4PM
Jim Suhler & Monkey Beat LIVE Ridglea Room 7PM $25+
Live Jazz Performance Feat. The Rob Holbert Group The Warehouse 8P
LOCALS ONLY VOL. 3 Whiskey Garden 8P
Fenne Lily + Christian Lee Hutson Tulips FW 8P $20+
Dope City Comedy Tour FW’s Hyena's Comedy Club Doors 8:30P
Guttersluts perform Alice in Chains Unplugged w/ Garrett Owen Twilite Lounge FW 9PM-12AM No Cover
Live music HopFusion 7PM
[Sunday June 11th]
Farmers Market 10AM-2PM Funky Picnic Brewery
Giddy Up Drag Brunch Concrete Cowboy FW 1-4PM
Monthly Book Club Funky Picnic Brewery 3-4P We will be focusing on outdoor & adventure-themed books, & every few months will include an outdoor activity prior to meeting to talk about the book! Will be discussing The Hatchet by Gary Paulsen
Matt Hillyer & Kayla Ray at The Post at River East 6-8P $20+
LanceBattalion at Fort Brewery 7-9PM
submitted by moistbrisket17 to FortWorth [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 04:12 Just_TacoBoutIt Fixed the the glitch

Fixed the the glitch
I deleted the app and the redownloaded it. Now it’s working properly and giving the info I need. I suggest everyone tries this to see if it corrects the glitch.
submitted by Just_TacoBoutIt to UberEatsDrivers [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 03:01 redditPOTUS2024 Platform Iteration #4

Income Taxes
-no changes for individuals making equal to or less than the standard deduction
-a 2% tax cut for income earned within the 10%, 12%, 22%, 24%, 32%, and 35% tax brackets above the standard deduction: adjusted brackets with 8%, 10%, 20%, 22%, 30%, and 33% and respectively
-a 2% increase for income earned above the 37% tax bracket threshold ($539,901 for a single filer status for the 2023 tax year) : adjusted bracket with 39% tax rate
-creation of an 8th tax bracket 45% for regular income above $3,000,000
Capital Gains Taxes
-no changes in short term and long term capital gains taxation for individuals with total income including regular income and capital gains below $3,000,000
-an increase to 45% tax rate for long term capitals gains for individuals earning above $3,000,000 per year
Federal Debt
-stabilization and reduction of the federal debt
-discontinuation of future federal student loans for students attending all private institutions, public institutions with greater than $1billion in endowment, or public institutions with any institutional employee making greater than $1 million per year
-an increase in department of education funding including grants to state school systems meeting certain criteria, such as no employees including superintendents making over $200,000 per year while working for the public school system
Military and Defense
-a reduction in military and defense spending
-a cap on military contracts with organizations in which executives receive equal to or greater than $3,000,000 in regular and/or stock based compensation per year while the business does at least 50% of its revenue in government related contracts
Minimum Wage
-pegged to inflation, including retroactively for inflation since the last increase of the federal minimum wage in 2009
Worker's Rights
-federal legislation supporting at least 4 weeks paid vacation for employees of companies with profit margins greater than 10% and/or executives with salaries greater than $3,000,000 in regular and stock based compensation
Congressional Term Limits
-senate limit of 2 consecutive 6-year terms (12 years). no total term limit. after 1 term (6 year) absence senators may rerun for another term (s) not to exceed to 2 consecutive terms
-house of representatives limit of 6 consecutive 2-year terms (12 years). no total term limit. after 3 term (6 year) absence former representatives may rerun for another term (s) not to exceed 6 consecutive term limits
Government Accountability
-increased government accountability and financial reporting requirements
-a ban on stock based trading for members of the executive branch, Senate, House of Representatives, Supreme Court, and Federal Reserve and their immediate families while in office
-speaking fees and book royalties due to members of the executive branch, Senate, House of Representatives, Supreme Court, and Federal Reserve for services performed while holding public office will be forfeited 100% to the United States Government
Campaign Funding
-federal legislation banning individuals or organizations from contributing greater than 1% of a candidate's overall funding if funding exceeds $1,000,000 total at any point during the candidate's campaign for office
-strengthened border control
-expedited naturalization for immigrants without criminal histories
Criminal Justice
-continued legality of the death penalty at the federal level with individualization deferred to the states
-closure and elimination of for profit penitentiaries
Gun Control
-universal background checks at both private and public sales
-no assault rifle ban
-increased liability at the federal level for the seller of arms if the arms sold are identified as the weapon used in a future crime involving murder or bodily harm to another individual
-energy independence derived from the United States' own energy production and its energy trade with North American partners Canada and Mexico
-continued push toward renewable energy
Foreign Aid and Policy
-a reduction in foreign financial aid
-peace brokering between Ukraine and Russia
Nuclear Arms
-continued advocacy of nuclear arms nonproliferation
-executive salary caps at nonprofit health institutions receiving special tax status
-federal legislation to decrease health insurance costs and healthcare costs
-an increased excise tax administered on tobacco products
-legality and legislation delegated to the individual states
-federal legislation prohibiting discrimination or criminal punishment of women in states where abortion is illegal who seek and have abortions performed in states where abortion is legal
-legalization of recreational marijuana at the federal level with establishment of legal blood level limits while using public property such as roads and buildings
-a federal excised tax administered on marijuana products sold
submitted by redditPOTUS2024 to redditPOTUS2024 [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 01:17 _dqpb Reno events forecast June 5 through June 11

Skipped last week because it was a holiday weekend, we're back to the regularly scheduled forecasts. Many more venues/events sources are now being tracked, and new experimental adjustments have been made for supporting recurring events. Thanks for the continuous appreciation, and for all the suggestions of event websites/sources!

Monday, June 5

Tuesday, June 6

Wednesday, June 7

Thursday, June 8

Friday, June 9

Saturday, June 10

Sunday, June 11

More events

Other Resources

  • visitrenotahoe.com
  • thisisreno.com
submitted by _dqpb to Reno [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 00:41 whatwasimeanttodo reverse chance me?

asian female
urban northeast
upper middle class (aid would be nice, but not vital)
selective public school (think similar to nyc’s shsat schools)
i’m intending to major in history of science/science technology and society with a premed focus, might also want to study journalism or education/child development
gpa: my school doesn’t send a gpa to colleges, but i have all a’s/a+’s
no class rank
we’re not allowed to take ap’s until junior year, and can only take up to two classes. i took ap biology and ap french this year, and self-studied ap english lit. next year, i’m planning on taking ap bc calc and ap gov, and self studying apush, ap psych, and ap english language. all classes offered are honors level, and i am in “advanced honors” math.
next year, i’m going to be a teaching intern for a ninth grade biology class.
taken precollege programs at smith and columbia, harvard’s online bioethics program, competitive test-based science program
sat: 1560 (790 ebrw/770 math), august 2022
grand concours (national french exam) platinum in 2021, gold (2nd in nation, first in region, $400 cash prize) in 2023
most likely national merit/ap scholar
a magazine i edit for won first place at scholastic two years ago
i’ve placed second and third regionally at science bowl if that counts?
i also was nominated for and won the ncte “promising young writers award” in 8th grade if that counts for anything? they said i could put it on college apps but i’m not sure
currently have one biology article where i’m credited for translation under review
hoping to publish a review article related to my research over the summer
editor-in-chief of school newspaper (12), managing editor (11), opinions section editor (10), staff writer (9), started initiative to mentor students at our affiliated elementary school’s newspaper
lab research internship (summer after 10-12), planning to submit to regeneron, established relationship between that lab and my school so now we send someone there every year
president and treasurer of science tutoring club geared toward providing underprivileged elementary school kids with hands on science lessons (10-12), founding member (8)
journalism team leader and english tutor for a nonprofit geared toward connecting chinese diaspora and teaching kids in rural china english (8-12)
assistant principal (likely co-principal next year) cellist in school string ensemble, been a member since 9th grade. also part of selective chamber orchestra group
science bowl student coach (9-12)
write and edit for three science publications at my school (climate science, general science, science news)
admin work for local hospice (11-12)
volunteer in patient comfort and transport for local hospital (11-12)
nominated and selected as a student mentor for younger incoming students (11-12)
nominated and selected to be a writing mentor for younger students (12)
selected to participate in school’s research seminar program (basically teaching lab skills and research presentation), helped select future participants (10-12)
tutored in french and math (10-12)
work reception and billing for my mother’s pediatric private practice (10-12)
worked and volunteered at my local public library (7-10)
all added up, i should have around 400 volunteer hours (library, hospice, hospital, lab) by the time i apply
i think i’m a pretty good writer! not comfortable sharing what my essays about here but my english teacher complimented it
counselor - 8-9/10
ap bio teachetutoring club advisoteaching intern supervisor next year - 9-10/10 (knows me very well and is familiar with my work outside the classroom, did really well in her class)
history teacher - 9-10/10 (he’s the one who encouraged me to study history of science in the first place)
lab mentor - 7/10 (doesn’t know me super well, but very respected in his field)
would like somewhere with a liberal arts focus since i’m interested in interdisciplinary studies/preparing for med school while still getting a well rounded humanities education.
would like to not have every single class be enormous.
i’d like to stay in the north—nowhere south of the carolinas. northern california/chicago is cool with me!
(i would like to try for harvard since their history of science/medicine and society program is amazing, but that’s a huge reach)
submitted by whatwasimeanttodo to chanceme [link] [comments]

2023.06.06 00:34 Krociia $1404 START YOUR STUDENT LIVING NEAR UW CAMPUS

✨Located in Seattle's University District, sign up before 07/15 for long-term leasing in Sora Apartments can enter the lottery for Taylor Swift's concert tickets!
📍 4239 8th Ave NE Seattle, WA 98105
💰 Starting at $1404+ per month with $600 off before 06/15
🌇 10min walk to the University of Washington campus.
submitted by Krociia to SeaList [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 22:34 Infinite-Director-44 DMC place is real

DMC place is real
I had to search it and it’s not a a paranormal investigator agency. It’s a night club with food.
submitted by Infinite-Director-44 to DevilMayCry [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 22:27 ThunderArtifact [D] Valve’s new sci-fi competitive shooter is rumored to be releasing next year. Would you invest early in it? Let’s discuss

Neon Prime is an unannounced upcoming sci-fi third person over the shoulder competitive team based game likely to be released in 2024
According to Tyler McVicker, he was shown gameplay of Neon Prime by a Valve insider. The game is a cross between Dota 2 & Team Fortress 2, with a class based system similar to TF2 aided with strong personalities
My bull case is that Valve hasn’t released a strong new IP since Portal and games like Artifact and Underlord were very unsuccessful. Valve makes the ground shake when they announce anything and its mostly disdain when it doesn’t have to do with Left 4 Dead, Team Fortress, Portal or Half Life. Which is why Neon Prime will likely not get marketing or much hype
That can be a good thing for investors who come in early while the game is not as popular in the beginning and items become discontinued
One thing that CSGO had going for it was apart from a few weapons, guns, knives and gloves were played on both sides of a game of CSGO. In TF2, you had many skins exclusive to that one specific class apart from universal hats. This is a bit risky when it comes to Neon Prime investing as those items are hugely limited
That said, any universal items that Neon Prime has should be worth buying, as well as identifying the most popular classes for riskier bets on investing. The safest investing being the first case that comes out and any consumables like stickers. At the end of the day, any item you buy in Neon Prime could moon if its early enough and the game is successful
With Overwatch 2 being completely decimated over the last few years, and TF2 remaining the 8th most played game on Steam despite being 17 years old, there is a lot of opportunity with a new competitor coming out
I plan on selling the last of my CSGO inventory when Neon Prime comes out and be ready to take a huge gamble on buying everything that Neon Prime has to offer
Please share your thoughts
submitted by ThunderArtifact to csgomarketforum [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 20:42 st3vehuff A Guide to Getting Started with UPSC CSE 2024

I hope everybody is doing well. This post has been long-due from my end. Let's get right into it.
In life, there are challenges that test our mettle, push our limits, and demand unwavering dedication. Among such trials, there exists a realm that holds the power to shape destinies; the "Civil Services Examination" a fiercely demanding examination conducted by the Union Public Service Commission that stands as a testament to resilience, intellect, and perseverance. This post delves into the domain of a truly arduous yet immensely fulfilling endeavor—the journey of UPSC CSE 2024.
Under no pretense, I promise that following the advice mentioned in this post will guarantee selection. However, if you pay attention to these valuable insights it will make your journey far less daunting and more enjoyable.

Table of Content

  1. Understanding UPSC CSE
  2. Deciding to Pursue UPSC CSE
  3. Exam Preparation Strategy
  4. Preliminary Exam
  5. Main Exam
  6. Personality Test (Interview)
  7. Developing Skills and Qualities
  8. Additional Preparation Resources
  9. Exam-Day Strategies and Tips
  10. Post-Exam and Result Analysis
  11. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
  12. Conclusion

1. Understanding UPSC CSE & Role of Civil Servants

UPSC CSE is of significant importance in shaping governance and administration. It recruits capable candidates for administrative, police, and diplomatic roles, crucial for nation-building. Civil servants formulate and implement policies, manage resources, and ensure effective governance. They address social issues, uplift marginalized communities, improve public services, and strive for inclusive growth. They work with policymakers, addressing challenges like poverty, education, healthcare, infrastructure, and sustainability. Civil services also include foreign services, fostering diplomacy and global cooperation. UPSC follows a rigorous, merit-based selection process, ensuring competent and ethical candidates. Civil servants are accountable, acting with transparency and integrity. It offers growth opportunities, diverse roles, training, and exposure, enhancing skills and leadership abilities.
You should check the official notification for:

2. Deciding to Pursue UPSC CSE

Deciding whether UPSC CSE is the right path for you requires careful consideration and self-reflection using C-A-R S-E-T.
Consider if you have a genuine desire to serve the nation, make a positive impact on society, and contribute to the betterment of the country through public service.
Assess your strengths, skills, and aptitudes. Consider if you possess the necessary qualities for civil services, such as analytical thinking, leadership abilities, effective communication, problem-solving skills, and the ability to work under pressure.
Reflect on whether you are willing to invest the time, effort, and dedication needed for extensive and rigorous preparation. Consider your study habits, ability to handle vast amounts of information, and commitment to continuous learning.
Seek Guidance and Advice Speak to current or former civil servants, mentors, or individuals who have attempted UPSC CSE; or are/were in service. Seek their guidance and insights into the challenges, rewards, and realities of a career in civil services. Their experiences can help you gain a deeper understanding of what to expect.
Evaluate Alternative Paths Consider if there are alternative career paths that align with your interests, skills, and aspirations. Explore other avenues that allow you to make a positive impact on society and contribute to public service. [Checkout my previous post for more details]
Trust Your Intuition Listen to your inner voice and trust your instincts. Consider your passion, enthusiasm, and dedication toward public service. If you genuinely feel drawn to the purpose and challenges associated with civil services, it may be an indication that UPSC CSE is the right path for you.

3. Exam Preparation Strategy

3.1 Creating a study plan and Timeline
Develop a realistic and organized study plan that covers all the subjects and topics within the given time frame. Allocate specific time slots for each subject, revision, and practice. Here is one sample you can take inspiration from:
Month MonthSubject/Theme Action
June 2023 Syllabus and Exam Pattern Analyse Syllabus - Word by-word breakdown; Check out PYQs for both Prelims and Mains
July 2023 Polity/Economy Cover the important chapters, Make Notes
August 2023 History/Art and Culture Cover the important chapters, Make Notes
September 2023 Geography/Environment Cover the important chapters, Make Notes
October 2023 The Optional Based on your interest in the past 4 months decide optional and study the PYQs.
November 2023 The Optional If you have to alter the subject this is the time. Else Continue to study.
December 2023 S&T, IR, Social Issues, CSAT Consolidate Current Affairs of the last 6 months. CSAT prep begins here.
Jan 2024 Core Subjects, Answer Writing, Test Series Revise Core Subjects and Practice Test Series and Write at least 1 answer daily from GSI-IV.
Feb 2024 Core Subjects, Answer Writing, Test Series, Optional Revision Revise Core Subjects and Practice Test Series and Write at least 1 answer daily from GSI-IV. Revisit Optional once.
March 2024 Prelims Revise keeping prelims in mind.
April 2024 Prelims 70:30 focus on Static: Current.
May 2024 Prelims, Exam *26 May 2024 Final Revision in 3 weeks.
June 2024 Essay + Ethics+Optional Prepare pointers for Essay and Ethics, Revise Paper 1 optional.
July 2024 GSIII, GS1, GSII Mains Answer writing
August 2024 GS I-IV, Optional Mains Answer writing
September 2024 Mains Exam Stay Healthy and Revise concepts from your one-pager notes.
3.2 Understanding the Syllabus and exam pattern
Check out the Points 4 and 5.
3.3 Recommended Books and study materials
Make use of NCERT textbooks for various subjects (especially for foundational knowledge). At least one standard book per subject we need. So here are some suggestions.
General Studies (Prelims and Mains):
  1. Indian Polity by M. Laxmikanth
  2. Indian Economy by Ramesh Singh
  3. History of Modern India by Bipan Chandra (or)
  4. Spectrum A Brief History of Modern India By Rajiv Ahir
  5. India's Struggle for Independence by Bipan Chandra
  6. Certificate Physical and Human Geography by G.C. Leong
  7. General Studies Paper I Manual by Tata McGraw-Hill
  8. General Studies Paper II Manual by MHE (McGraw-Hill Education)
  9. The Wonder that was India by A.L. Basham
  10. Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania
  11. Environment for Civil Services Prelims and Mains by Khuller
  12. CSAT - Topic-wise Solved Papers by Disha Experts
Current Affairs and Newspapers:
  1. The Hindu or The Indian Express (Newspapers) (Just one)
  2. Yojana and Kurukshetra magazines
  3. Monthly Compilation of Current Affairs.
  4. Manorama Yearbook
Apart from books, regularly following reliable online platforms, UPSC preparation websites, and educational resources like PIB (Press Information Bureau), PRS (PRS Legislative Research), and the government's official websites can provide valuable insights and updates.
Optional Subjects:
[Moved to 8. Additional Preparation Resources]
3.4 Effective note-making techniques
  1. Keep it concise: Focus on capturing the key points and essential information. Avoid lengthy sentences and unnecessary details. Use bullet points, headings, and subheadings to structure your notes and make them easy to scan and review.
  2. Use abbreviations and symbols: Develop a set of abbreviations and symbols to represent commonly used words or phrases. This saves time and space while taking notes. For example, use arrows (→) for "leads to," abbreviations like "govt" for government, or "&" for "and."
  3. Highlight and underline: Use highlighters or underline important keywords, phrases, or facts to draw attention to critical information. This makes it easier to quickly review and revise key points.
  4. Draw diagrams and flowcharts: Visual representations like diagrams, flowcharts, or mind maps can help in understanding and retaining complex concepts. Use arrows, boxes, and connectors to illustrate relationships between different ideas or components.
  5. Use colors and different fonts: Incorporate colors or different fonts to visually differentiate between headings, subheadings, and content. This makes your notes more visually appealing and aids in organization and quick reference.
  6. Summarize and rephrase: Instead of copying content verbatim, try to summarize and rephrase information in your own words. This process enhances understanding and retention. Focus on capturing the essence of the content rather than every single detail.
  7. Include examples and case studies: Supplement your notes with relevant examples, case studies, and illustrations. This helps in better comprehension and application of concepts during revision and while answering exam questions.
  8. Create separate sections for different subjects/topics: Maintain separate notebooks or sections for each subject or topic. This helps in keeping your notes organized and easily accessible. It also allows you to review specific subjects independently.
  9. Use headings and subheadings: Use clear headings and subheadings to categorize and structure your notes. This makes it easier to locate specific information and navigate through your notes during revision.
  10. Regularly review and revise your notes: Set aside regular time for revisiting and updating your notes. Reviewing your notes frequently ensures that the information stays fresh in your memory and helps you identify areas that need further clarification or revision.
Remember, note-making is a personal process, and you should develop a system that works best for you. Experiment with different techniques (Cornell, Outlining, Mapping, Charting, Sentence), formats, and organization methods to find what suits your learning style and aids your comprehension and revision process.

4. Preliminary Exam

The Preliminary exam is the first stage of the selection process. It consists of two papers: General Studies Paper-I (GS Paper-I) and General Studies Paper-II (CSAT Paper-II). Here is an overview of the Prelims exam:
1. General Studies Paper-I (GS Paper-I):
Duration: 2 hours
Total marks: 200 marks
Number of questions: 100 questions
1/3rd Negative Marking
Nature of questions: Multiple-choice questions (MCQs)
Syllabus: a. History: Ancient, Medieval, Art and Culture, Modern History of India, Indian National Movement. (not world history) b. Geography: Indian Geography, Physical Geography, Economic Geography, Environmental Geography. c. Polity and Governance: Indian Polity, Constitution, Public Administration, Panchayati Raj, Rights Issues, and Governance. d. Economy: Indian Economy, Economic Development, Sustainable Development, Social Sector Initiatives, Poverty, Inclusion, and Demographics. e. Science and Technology: General Science, Space Technology, IT, Biotechnology, and Environmental Science. f. Environment and Ecology: Environmental Ecology, environmental Legislation, Biodiversity, Climate Change, and Conservation. g. Current Affairs: National and International Events, Government Schemes, Sports, Policies, etc.
Not including key important topics as that will put a bias on your initial preparation.
2. General Studies Paper-II (CSAT Paper-II):
Duration: 2 hours
Total marks: 200 marks
Number of questions: 80 questions
1/3rd Negative Marking
Nature of questions: Multiple-choice questions (MCQs)
Syllabus: The CSAT Paper-II focuses on testing the aptitude and analytical abilities of the candidates, including areas such as comprehension, logical reasoning, analytical ability, decision-making, problem-solving, and general mental ability.
It's important to note that the marks obtained in the Prelims exam are considered for qualifying purposes only. The score of the Prelims is not added to the final merit list. The objective of the Prelims is to shortlist candidates for the Main examination based on a predetermined cutoff.
How to prepare
  1. Familiarize yourself with the exam pattern and syllabus of both GS Paper-I and Paper-II. Understand the weightage of each topic and the type of questions asked in the exam.
  2. Go through PYQs to understand the trends, the difficulty level, and the areas that are frequently asked. This will give you insights into the exam pattern and help you identify important topics.
  3. Develop a study plan that covers the entire syllabus, allocating sufficient time to each subject and topic. Make a timetable and stick to it, ensuring regular and consistent study hours.
  4. Choose reliable and comprehensive study materials for each subject. Refer to textbooks, NCERT books, and other recommended resources.
    Importance of PYQs and Mock Tests (PYQs >> Mocks)
Solving mock tests and previous years' question papers allows you to evaluate your exam readiness. Mock tests and PYQs provide valuable insights into the exam pattern, structure, and types of questions asked in the UPSC CSE Prelims.
Mock tests help you assess your knowledge and skills. By analyzing your performance, you can identify your strengths and weaknesses in different subjects and topics. This helps you focus your preparation on areas that need improvement, optimizing your study plan.
By solving these papers, you become familiar with the format of the exam and gain confidence in tackling different question styles. It also helps in time management. It won't be an exaggeration if we say that PYQs can help you clear prelims with ease.

5. Main Examination

The Main examination consists of a written exam comprising nine papers, out of which two are qualifying in nature, and the remaining seven are considered for the ranking. Here is the structure and syllabus of the Main exam:
  1. Paper-A: One of the Indian languages (qualifying in nature) This paper tests your proficiency in one of the scheduled languages mentioned in the 8th Schedule of the Indian Constitution. You need to choose one language from the given list.
  2. Paper-B: English (qualifying in nature) This paper tests your understanding of English language and comprehension skills.
  3. Essay (Paper-I): You are required to write two essays, each consisting of 1,000-1,200 words. The topics are given from a wide range of subjects and require analytical and critical thinking.
  4. General Studies I (Paper-II): Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society.
  5. General Studies II (Paper-III): Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice, and International Relations.
  6. General Studies III (Paper-IV): Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security, and Disaster Management.
  7. General Studies IV (Paper-V): Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude.
  8. Optional Subject - Paper I (Paper-VI): You have to choose one optional subject from the list provided by UPSC. Each subject has two papers (Paper I and Paper II).
  9. Optional Subject - Paper II (Paper-VII): The second paper of the chosen optional subject.
In order to adequately prepare for your studies, it is crucial to refer to the specific wording and content outlined in the syllabus. Let's take an example from the UPSC GS-1 syllabus, which includes the topic "Effects of globalization on Indian society." This particular aspect of the syllabus encompasses various dimensions such as the impact of globalization on women, children, older individuals, culture, and crime in India. Therefore, it is essential to thoroughly prepare for this section by exploring all possible dimensions mentioned. To ensure you cover the required topics, it is advisable to keep a copy of the syllabus for reference.
Ethics broadly comprise two parts. Section A ( Theory) and Section B ( Case studies)
Section A of the General Studies IV (Paper-V) in the UPSC Main examination focuses on theoretical aspects related to fundamental values and concepts. It explores the meaning of various words such as integrity, ethics, morality, beliefs, and value systems.
An important subsection within Section A is "foundational values for civil services." This part delves into the core values expected from civil servants, including integrity, impartiality, neutrality, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance, and compassion towards marginalized sections of society.
This section holds immense significance in the syllabus, not only for Section A and case studies but also for your future career as a civil servant. It is crucial to prepare this portion thoroughly as it forms the basis of your ethical conduct and professional responsibilities once you are selected for civil services.
Tips for essay writing and answer presentation
  1. Understand the Question: Carefully read and understand the essay or question prompt. Identify the key themes, arguments, or perspectives that need to be addressed.
  2. Plan and Structure: Devote some time to brainstorming and outlining your essay or answer. Create a clear and logical structure with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Outline the main points and arguments you want to include.
  3. Introduction: Start with a compelling introduction that sets the context and provides a clear thesis statement or main argument. Engage the reader from the beginning and establish the purpose of your essay or answer.
  4. Main Body: Present your arguments and ideas coherently in the main body. Each paragraph should focus on a specific point or sub-topic. Use logical transitions to connect your ideas and ensure a smooth flow of information.
  5. Use Evidence and Examples: Support your arguments with relevant evidence, facts, and examples. This demonstrates your understanding of the topic and adds credibility to your essay or answer. Use real-life examples, case studies, and current affairs to strengthen your points.
  6. Be Clear and Concise: Use clear and concise language to express your ideas. Avoid unnecessary jargon or complex terminology. Present your thoughts in a straightforward and understandable manner.
  7. Balance Perspectives: While presenting arguments, consider multiple perspectives and provide a balanced view. Acknowledge counterarguments and address them effectively. This showcases your analytical thinking and ability to critically evaluate different viewpoints.
  8. Time Management: Manage your time effectively during the exam. Allocate sufficient time to each question or essay and stick to the time limit. Prioritize answering the questions you are most confident about, but ensure that you answer all questions.
  9. Language and Grammar: Pay attention to your language and grammar. Use proper punctuation, sentence structure, and vocabulary. Proofread your answers for any errors or typos before submitting.
  10. Practice and Review: Practice writing essays and answering mock questions regularly. Review and analyze your answers to identify areas for improvement. Seek feedback from mentors, teachers, or peers to enhance your writing skills.
Subject-wise preparation strategies for General Studies papers
It is essential to have a subject-wise approach to cover the vast syllabus effectively. Here are some subject-wise preparation strategies for the GS papers:
Polity and Governance
Science and Technology
Environment and Ecology
Current Affairs
Remember to practice answer writing, solve previous years' question papers, and take mock tests to assess your preparation and improve your answer presentation skills for each subject.
Optional subject selection and preparation
Some tips for selecting and preparing for an optional subject:
  1. Interest and Aptitude: Choose a subject that genuinely interests you and aligns with your strengths and aptitude. Having a natural inclination towards the subject will make the preparation process more enjoyable and easier to grasp.
  2. Syllabus and Availability of Study Material: Review the syllabus of each optional subject and assess the availability of relevant study materials, books, and resources. Opt for a subject with a well-defined syllabus and ample study materials to aid your preparation.
  3. Previous Knowledge and Background: Consider your educational background and previous knowledge in a particular subject. If you have prior knowledge or academic expertise in a specific area, it can give you an advantage and make the learning process smoother.
  4. Scoring Potential: Research and analyze the scoring potential of different optional subjects. Look at the past trends and the success rate of candidates in each subject. However, keep in mind that scoring in the optional subject is not the sole determinant of success in the exam.
  5. Coaching and Guidance: Evaluate the availability of coaching institutes and guidance for your chosen optional subject. Coaching can provide structured guidance, study materials, and access to experienced faculty who can help you navigate the subject effectively.
  6. Time and Effort: Assess the time and effort required for the preparation of each optional subject. Consider the overlap of the optional subject with the General Studies papers and choose a subject that allows you to manage your time and efforts effectively.
  7. Consistency and Revision: Once you have selected an optional subject, maintain consistency in your preparation. Allocate dedicated time for studying the subject regularly. Revise the concepts, practice answer writing, and solve previous years' question papers to strengthen your understanding and retention.

6. Personality Test (Interview)

The Personality Test is the final hurdle in the selection process. After the Main examination results are announced, candidates who qualify for the interview stage receive a call letter with details about the interview date, time, and venue. Virtual Tour of Museum
  1. Duration and Panel: The interview generally lasts around 30 minutes. A panel of experienced and knowledgeable members, including UPSC officials and subject matter experts, conducts the interview.
  2. Evaluation Criteria: The interview assesses the candidate's personality traits, communication skills, critical thinking abilities, problem-solving skills, general awareness, and suitability for a career in civil services.
  3. Topics Covered: The interview can cover a wide range of topics, including current affairs, national and international events, social issues, government policies, the candidate's background, hobbies, academic achievements, and optional subject knowledge.
  4. Approach: The interview is not a knowledge test but an evaluation of the candidate's personality. Be confident, honest, and composed. Listen carefully to the questions and provide well-thought-out responses.
  5. Preparation: To prepare for the interview, stay updated with current affairs and recent developments. Review your DAF (Detailed Application Form) thoroughly, as the panel may ask questions based on the information provided. Practice mock interviews and seek feedback from mentors or seniors.
  6. Body Language and Communication: Pay attention to your body language, maintain eye contact, sit upright, and speak clearly and confidently. Use appropriate language and be respectful to the panel members.
  7. Honesty and Integrity: Be truthful in your responses. If you are unsure about an answer, it is better to admit it rather than provide incorrect information. The panel values honesty and integrity.
  8. Positive Attitude: Maintain a positive and optimistic attitude throughout the interview. Do not get flustered by challenging questions or interruptions. Stay composed and present your thoughts logically.
  9. Post-Interview Analysis: After the interview, reflect on your performance. Identify areas where you can improve and learn from the experience. Stay positive and prepare for the next steps in the selection process.
Remember, the interview is an opportunity to showcase your personality, confidence, and suitability for civil services. Be well-prepared, stay calm, and present your best self during the interview.
More on DAF
Do not include unnecessary hobbies without realizing the consequences. As a result, You have to spend a lot of time preparing answers for irrelevant information, which could have potentially put you in trouble during the interview.
It is crucial to consult a senior or someone experienced before filling your DAF. More often than not, a significant portion of your interview is based on the information provided in the DAF. You will be asked numerous questions on specific aspects of your DAF that the panel found interesting.
Being honest is essential, but it is equally important to be smart. Include only those details that can be easily prepared from an interview point of view. Focus on adding things you are confident about and have thoroughly prepared. Not being able to answer something from your DAF can create a wrong impression.
If possible, consider filling out a rough DAF at the beginning of your UPSC preparation and then develop your hobbies and personality accordingly throughout the course of your preparation.
Even if something goes wrong during the interview, it is crucial to stay calm. Remember that everyone makes mistakes. Gather yourself, remain confident, and maintain a polite demeanor.

7. Developing Skills and Qualities

Read Newspapers: Develop a habit of reading newspapers daily. Focus on national, international, and regional news. Pay attention to editorials, opinion pieces, and articles related to governance, politics, economy, and social issues. You read the newspaper not only for knowledge but as a good habit building. Regularly visit government websites at the national, state, and local levels to stay updated on policy announcements, initiatives, reports, and official statements. Join study groups or discussion forums where aspirants and experts exchange knowledge and insights on current affairs. Engaging in meaningful discussions with fellow aspirants can enhance your understanding. Don't waste time listening to rants. Regularly practice answer writing on current affairs topics. This helps you develop a structured approach, improve your articulation skills, and reinforce your knowledge.
Improving writing and communication skills
Reading extensively exposes you to different writing styles, vocabulary, and ideas. Read a variety of materials such as books, newspapers, magazines, and online articles to improve your language skills and broaden your knowledge. Set aside time each day for writing practice. Start with short exercises like journaling, writing reflections, or summarizing articles. Gradually progress to longer pieces such as essays or opinion pieces. Focus on clarity, coherence, and grammar. Organize your thoughts before writing. Create an outline or mind map to establish a logical flow and structure for your writing. This helps convey your ideas effectively and ensures coherence in your written work. Develop your oral communication skills by seeking opportunities for public speaking. Join debate clubs, participate in group discussions, or deliver presentations. Practice articulating your thoughts clearly and engaging with your audience effectively.
Effective time management
  1. Prioritize Tasks: Identify the most important and urgent tasks and prioritize them. Make a to-do list or use a planner to organize your tasks based on their importance and deadlines.
  2. Set SMART Goals: Set Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound (SMART) goals for your study sessions. Breaking down your goals into smaller, manageable tasks helps you stay focused and motivated.
  3. Create a Study Schedule: Develop a study schedule that suits your preferences and aligns with your daily routine. Allocate specific time slots for different subjects, revision, and practice. Stick to the schedule as much as possible to maintain consistency.
  4. Avoid Procrastination: Procrastination can lead to unnecessary stress and time pressure. Break tasks into smaller parts set deadlines, and practice self-discipline to avoid procrastinating. Start with the most challenging or important tasks to build momentum.
  5. Minimize Distractions: Identify and minimize distractions during study hours. Turn off notifications on your phone or keep it away from your study area. Create a quiet and dedicated study space to help you concentrate better.
  6. Use Productivity Techniques: Explore productivity techniques like the Pomodoro Technique, where you work for a set time (e.g., 25 minutes) and take short breaks in between. This helps maintain focus and improves productivity.
Stress management techniques
  1. Practice Relaxation Techniques: Engage in relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or yoga to calm your mind and reduce stress. Regular practice helps manage anxiety and promotes overall well-being.
  2. Take Breaks: Give yourself regular breaks during study sessions. Short breaks can help refresh your mind, improve focus, and prevent burnout. Use these breaks to engage in activities you enjoy or to stretch and relax.
  3. Maintain a Healthy Lifestyle: Prioritize your physical and mental well-being. Get enough sleep, eat nutritious meals, and exercise regularly. Taking care of your body and mind helps you manage stress better.
  4. Seek Support: Reach out to friends, family, or fellow aspirants for support. Discuss your concerns, share your experiences, and seek advice when needed. Joining study groups or online communities can provide a support network.
  5. Stay Positive and Motivated: Maintain a positive mindset and stay motivated throughout your preparation. Celebrate small victories, remind yourself of your goals, and focus on your progress. Surround yourself with positive influences and motivational resources.

8. Additional Preparation Resources

Pros of Coaching institutes
  1. Structured Guidance: Coaching institutes provide a structured approach to preparation. They offer a well-defined curriculum, study materials, and a schedule that can help aspirants stay organized and focused.
  2. Experienced Faculty: Coaching institutes often have experienced faculty members who are well-versed in the UPSC exam pattern and syllabus. They can provide valuable insights, tips, and strategies to tackle different subjects and stages of the exam.
  3. Peer Learning and Competition: Joining a coaching institute allows you to interact with like-minded aspirants. Group discussions, mock tests, and peer interactions can create a competitive environment that motivates and challenges you to improve your performance.
  4. Test Series and Mock Exams: Coaching institutes usually conduct regular test series and mock exams, which help in assessing your preparation level and identifying areas that need improvement. These simulated exams also provide a real exam-like experience and help you develop exam-taking skills.
  5. Personalized Guidance and Doubt Clearing: Many coaching institutes offer personalized guidance and doubt-clearing sessions. You can seek clarification on difficult topics, get feedback on your performance, and receive guidance on exam strategy from expert mentors.
Cons of Coaching Institutes:
  1. Cost: Joining a coaching institute can be expensive. Tuition fees, study materials, and other expenses can put a strain on your budget. It is essential to consider the financial aspect before enrolling in a coaching institute. These days online resources can be pretty useful. It requires more digging and some unethical means.
  2. Time Constraints: Coaching classes have fixed schedules, and you may need to adjust your daily routine accordingly. This can be challenging for working professionals or individuals with other commitments.
  3. Teaching Style and Compatibility: The teaching style of the faculty and the institute's approach may not always match your learning preferences. Some individuals may find it difficult to adapt to the teaching methods used in coaching institutes.
  4. Dependency: Over-reliance on coaching institutes can sometimes hinder self-study and independent thinking. It is important to strike a balance between self-study and coaching institute guidance to develop a holistic understanding of the subjects.
  5. Quality Variation: The quality of coaching institutes can vary. While some institutes have highly qualified and experienced faculty, others may not meet the same standards. It is crucial to research and choose reputable institutes with a proven track record.
Ultimately, the decision to join a coaching institute for UPSC CSE preparation depends on your individual learning style, financial capacity, and availability of time. It is possible to crack the exam without coaching, but if you believe that structured guidance, peer learning, and personalized support would benefit you, joining a coaching institute can be a viable option.
Here are some popular institutes:
  1. Vajiram and Ravi is a reputed offline coaching institute that also offers online courses for UPSC CSE preparation. Their online platform provides video lectures, study materials, and test series.
  2. IASbaba is an online platform that offers a range of free and paid courses for UPSC CSE preparation. It provides daily current affairs, study materials, test series, and guidance from experienced mentors.
  3. ForumIAS is a popular online community for UPSC aspirants. It offers a platform for discussion, doubt-solving, and peer interaction. It also provides study materials, current affairs updates, and guidance from experts.
  4. InsightsIAS is known for its comprehensive study materials, test series, and current affairs analysis. It provides free resources as well as paid courses for UPSC CSE preparation.
  5. Vision IAS emphasizes current affairs preparation, considering its significance in the UPSC CSE. They provide monthly magazines, daily news analyses, and other resources to help aspirants stay updated on current events.
Popular Individual faculty for UPSC CSE preparation
Mr. Mrunal Patel [Economy]
Mr. Pratik Nayak [History]
Mr Siddharth Arora [Polity]
Mr Anudeep Durishetty [Essay]
Mr Praveen Kishore [sociology]
More on this later.
Self-Motivation and Discipline
Self-study requires self-motivation and discipline. It helps you cultivate these essential qualities, which are crucial for success in the exam. By setting goals, managing your time effectively, and staying focused, you develop a strong work ethic that prepares you for the challenges ahead. When you engage in self-study, you have the opportunity to dive deep into concepts and develop a thorough understanding. You can spend more time on complex topics, explore different resources, and seek clarification when needed. This promotes a strong foundation of knowledge and enhances your conceptual clarity. Regular self-evaluation allows you to assess your progress, identify areas of improvement, and fine-tune your study approach.

9. Exam-Day Strategies and Tips

Dos on the day of the exam
  1. Get a good night's sleep
  2. Eat a healthy breakfast
  3. Arrive early at the exam center
  4. Carry essential documents
  5. Stay calm and positive
  6. Read instructions carefully
Don'ts on the day of the exam:
  1. Don't study new topics
  2. Don't discuss the exam with others
  3. Don't panic over difficult questions
  4. Don't rush through the exam
  5. Don't carry prohibited items
  6. Don't compare yourself to others
Time management during the exam
Quickly skim through the entire question paper to get an overview of the questions and their difficulty level. This will help you prioritize and allocate time accordingly.
Divide the available time among different sections based on their weightage and your comfort level. Allocate more time to sections that carry more marks or where you are stronger.
Assign specific time limits to each question or set of questions based on their complexity and marks. This will help you stay on track and avoid spending too much time on a single question.
If you encounter a particularly difficult question or one that is taking up too much time, it's okay to skip it and come back to it later if you have time remaining. Focus on answering the questions you can handle efficiently first.
There are breaks scheduled during the exam, use them wisely. Take a quick mental and physical break, but avoid engaging in lengthy discussions or distractions that may consume precious time.
Dealing with exam anxiety and stress
One of the best ways to alleviate exam anxiety is to be well-prepared. Maintain a consistent study routine, cover the syllabus comprehensively, and revise thoroughly. Confidence in your preparation can significantly reduce anxiety. Break it down: Rather than getting overwhelmed by the entire syllabus, break it down into smaller, manageable portions. Create a study plan and set realistic goals for each study session. Focusing on one topic at a time can help reduce anxiety. Deep breathing exercises, meditation, yoga, or listening to calming music can help you relax and reduce anxiety levels. Ensure you prioritize self-care. Get enough sleep, eat nutritious meals, and engage in physical activity. A healthy body and mind can better handle stress and anxiety. Develop a study schedule that allows for regular breaks and leisure activities. Effective time management can help reduce the pressure of last-minute cramming and provide a better balance in your routine.

10. Post-Exam and Result Analysis

Preliminary Exam Result: After the UPSC CSE Preliminary Exam, the result is usually declared within a few weeks. The result is published on the official UPSC website. It includes a list of candidates who have qualified for the Main Exam based on the cutoff marks set by the UPSC.
Main Exam Result: Once the Main Exam is conducted, the result is declared after a few months. The result is published on the UPSC website and includes the roll numbers of candidates who have qualified for the next stage, which is the Interview or Personality Test.
Final Result: The final result is declared after the completion of the Interview/Personality Test. It includes the names and ranks of candidates who have successfully cleared all the stages of the exam. The final result is published on the UPSC website and may also be published in leading newspapers.
Merit List: The final result is based on the total marks obtained by candidates in the Main Exam and the Interview/Personality Test. A merit list is prepared based on the overall performance, and candidates are ranked accordingly. The allotment of services is done based on the candidate's rank and preference.
Analyzing performance and identifying areas for improvement
Start by reviewing your exam scores and marks obtained in each section. Identify the areas where you performed well and areas where you struggled or scored lower. This will give you an initial understanding of your strengths and weaknesses. Based on your analysis, create a study plan that addresses your weak areas while also reinforcing your strengths. Allocate more time and effort to topics or subjects that need improvement. Break down your study plan into smaller, achievable targets to ensure consistent progress.
Strategies for preparing for subsequent attempts
Analyze your strengths and weaknesses, and use this self-assessment as a foundation for your subsequent preparation. Based on your analysis, pinpoint the subjects, topics, or specific areas where you need improvement. It could be conceptual understanding, answer writing, time management, or current affairs. Prioritize these areas and develop a targeted strategy to enhance your knowledge and skills. Reinforce your foundational knowledge by revisiting the basic concepts and fundamentals of each subject. Assess your time management skills and identify areas where you can improve. Consult mentors, teachers, or successful candidates who can provide guidance and valuable insights. Take care of your physical and mental well-being.

11. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Is coaching necessary for UPSC CSE preparation? Coaching is not mandatory, but it can provide structured guidance, study materials, and mock tests. It can be helpful, especially for those who require additional support or prefer a classroom learning environment. However, self-study with the right resources and self-discipline can also lead to success.
What are the best books for UPSC CSE preparation? The choice of books may vary depending on the subject and individual preferences. Some popular books for UPSC CSE include NCERT textbooks, standard reference books by authors like Laxmikanth, M. Laxmikanth, Ramesh Singh, and Bipan Chandra, and newspapers like The Hindu for current affairs.
Can working professionals prepare for UPSC CSE? Yes, working professionals can prepare for UPSC CSE by managing their time effectively, creating a study plan, and dedicating focused hours to preparation. Utilize weekends, early mornings, and evenings for study. Balance work commitments with consistent preparation.

Clarifying misconceptions and providing guidance

Misconception: Only candidates from prestigious educational backgrounds can crack UPSC CSE. UPSC CSE is open to candidates from diverse educational backgrounds. It is the knowledge, aptitude, and dedication that matter more than the educational institution. With the right strategy, study materials, and consistent effort, anyone can succeed in the exam.
Misconception: UPSC CSE can be cleared on the first attempt without much preparation. UPSC CSE is a highly competitive exam that requires thorough preparation and dedication. While a few exceptional candidates may clear it on their first attempt, most aspirants require multiple attempts. Developing a long-term preparation strategy and consistent effort is key to success.
Misconception: Coaching institutes guarantee success in UPSC CSE. Coaching institutes can provide guidance, study materials, and mock tests, but they do not guarantee success. Success in UPSC CSE depends on individual effort, self-study, and consistent practice. Many candidates have cleared the exam without formal coaching. It's important to choose the right resources and adopt a disciplined approach to self-study.
Misconception: Memorizing information is enough for UPSC CSE. UPSC CSE tests conceptual understanding, analytical abilities, and application of knowledge. Mere memorization of facts and information is not enough. Focus on understanding concepts, connecting topics, and developing critical thinking skills. Practice answer writing and analyze previous years' question papers to enhance your application-based approach.
Misconception: Studying for long hours guarantees success. Study hours alone do not determine success. Quality of study matters more than quantity. Focus on effective time management, breaking down topics into manageable chunks, and setting realistic goals. Take regular breaks, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and prioritize self-care to ensure sustained productivity.
Misconception: English proficiency is mandatory for UPSC CSE. While UPSC CSE is conducted in English and Hindi, candidates do not need exceptional fluency in English. Basic proficiency in English is sufficient to understand and communicate effectively. Focus on improving language skills through reading, writing, and practicing answer writing.
Misconception: The optional subject is the key to success in UPSC CSE. The optional subject plays a significant role in the Main Examination, but it is not the sole determinant of success. A well-rounded preparation, including General Studies papers, current affairs, and essay writing, is equally important. Choose the optional subject based on your interest, aptitude, and availability of study materials.
Misconception: UPSC CSE is all about hard work, and luck plays no role. Hard work is essential for UPSC CSE, but luck can also play a role in certain aspects like question patterns, options in multiple-choice questions, etc. However, luck alone cannot guarantee success. Focus on consistent effort, smart preparation, and improving your skills and knowledge to maximize your chances of success.

12. Conclusion

We have covered a wide range of topics related to UPSC CSE preparation. We discussed the importance of this exam and its eligibility criteria, exam stages, and services offered. We explored various strategies for exam preparation, including recommended books, note-making techniques, and time management. We also delved into specific subjects, optional subject selection, and interview processes. Furthermore, we addressed common queries, clarified misconceptions, and provided guidance. Throughout the discussion, we emphasized the significance of self-study, self-evaluation, and continuous improvement. We highlighted the value of mock tests, previous years' question papers, and analyzing performance. Lastly, we discussed the importance of motivation, encouragement, and perseverance on this challenging yet rewarding journey. Remember, with dedication, strategic planning, and the right mindset, you can overcome obstacles and achieve success in UPSC CSE. Good luck!
Encouragement and motivation for sticklers
Some motivational movies centered around society and its betterment. You should watch it when you have time :)
Dead Poets Society, Remember the Titans, The Pursuit of Happyness, October Sky, Hidden Figures, A Beautiful Mind, Freedom Writers, The Blind Side, Gandhi, Invictus, Freedom Writers, The Help 2011, The Great Debaters, The Pursuit of Equality, Milk 2008, Selma, Norma Rae, Kaala 2018, Peranbu, Mahatma, Drishyam, Swades, Rang De Basanti and many more.
"The future belongs to those who believe in the beauty of their dreams." - Eleanor Roosevelt
submitted by st3vehuff to UPSC [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 19:26 JOE-BATTERS What is next?

I don't see any plan of paying off debt due in 2026. RIte Aid in my opinion will probably be able to pay its 2025 debt but what happens after that? Billions are due in 2026 and no plan from this management. Heyward couldn't come up with anything in her 4 years at the helm. She did try to buyback some of it at a discount and did a few hundred million but at what cost. RiteAid's credit rating is in the toilet. It is just amazing to me how this management is so incompetent. Also Busy already lied to us when she said she was going to upload another video after the last ER. SMH! She gets paid $300,000 per month? How phoking nuts is that? I have been frustrated for a few years now and yes I have nobody to blame but myself for investing in RAD. I don't blame day traders, shorts or anyone else but myself.RAD turned out to be my worst investment ever and it is not even close.
submitted by JOE-BATTERS to RiteAidInvestor_RAD [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 19:22 11_Lock Multipoint panic hardware

Multipoint panic hardware
Some more interesting stuff at a Walgreens. These aren’t uncommon but I’ve never seen one in person. This Walgreens used to be a Rite Aid so maybe it’s a rite aid thing. Still cool!
Also had a hinge side static bolt - not sure what we call those.
submitted by 11_Lock to Locksmith [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 18:33 mermaidkitchen $50 for one hour interview- this week

$50 for one hour interview- this week submitted by mermaidkitchen to FargoMoorhead [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 18:33 mermaidkitchen $50 for one hour interview this week

$50 for one hour interview this week submitted by mermaidkitchen to fargo [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 17:58 partypastor Unreached People Group of the Week - The Omani Arabs of Oman

Happy Monday everyone, welcome to another UPG of the Week. Meet the Omani Arabs in Oman!

Region: Oman

Stratus Index Ranking (Urgency): 52
It has been noted to me by u/JCmathetes that I should explain this ranking. Low numbers are more urgent, both physically and spiritually together, while high numbers are less urgent. The scale is 1-177, with one number assigned to each country. So basically on a scale from Afghanistan (1) to Finland (177), how urgent are the peoples physical and spiritual needs.
The Stratus Index - Synthesizes reliable data from different sources to clearly display the world’s most urgent spiritual and physical needs.
The vast majority of missions resources go to people and places already Reached by the Gospel, while only 3% of missionaries and 1% of missions money are deployed among the Unreached. This is the Great Imbalance. As a result, there are more people without access to the Gospel today than a decade ago. Stratus seeks to equip the global church with fresh vision to accomplish the Great Commission by addressing some of the factors that perpetuate the Great Imbalance. We hope this tool allows the church to better understand what steps will be required to overcome the barriers that prevent needs from being met, spurring informed and collaborative missions strategy. Stratus Website
Climate: Summer temperatures in Muscat and northern Oman average 30 to 40 °C (86.0 to 104.0 °F). Annual rainfall in Muscat averages 100 mm (3.9 in), occurring mostly in January. In the south, the Dhofar Mountains area near Salalah has a tropical-like climate and receives seasonal rainfall from June to September as a result of monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean, leaving the summer air saturated with moisture and fog. Summer temperatures in Salalah range from 20 to 30 °C (68.0 to 86.0 °F)
The Dhofar mountains in the summer
Terrain: A gravel desert plain covers most of central Oman, with mountain ranges along the north (Al-Hajar) and southeast coast (Qara or Dhofar Mountains). The peninsula of Musandam (Musandem), strategically located on the Strait of Hormuz, is an exclave separated from the rest of Oman by the United Arab Emirates.[116] Coast of Sur Madha, another exclave, is an enclave within UAE territory located halfway between the Musandam Peninsula and the main body of Oman.
An Oasis in Oman
Wildlife of Oman: Oman has many animals for its relatively small land size. It is one of the last places in which the Arabian leopard survives is the Dhofar mountains in southern Oman. Other carnivores present include the striped hyena, the honey badger, the red fox, the caracal, the sand cat, Blanford's fox and Arabian wildcat. Some other mammals include the the Arabian oryx, the sand gazelle, the mountain gazelle, the Nubian ibex, the camel. Off Muscat there are other humpback whales, pygmy blue whales, Bryde's whales, sperm whales, false killer whales, Risso's dolphins, spinner dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, Indo-Pacific humpbacked dolphins, and the occasional killer whale. Most of the approximately one dozen or so snake species in the country are harmless, but the uncommon horned viper, carpet viper, puff adder and cobra are venomous. There are no monkeys (afaik) in Oman!
The Arabian Leopard
Environmental Issues: Both drought and limited rainfall contribute to shortages in the nation's water supply. The nation's soil has shown increased levels of salinity. Pollution of beaches and other coastal areas by oil tanker traffic through the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman is also a persistent problem.
Languages: Arabic is the official language. There are dialects of Arabic spoken, all part of the Peninsular Arabic family: Dhofari Arabic (also known as Dhofari, Zofari) is spoken in Salalah and the surrounding coastal regions (the Dhofar Governorate). According to CIA (freakin lol), besides Arabic, English, Baluchi (Southern Baluchi), Urdu, Bengali (spoken by Indians and Bangladeshis), Hindi, Malayalam, Tulu and other Indian languages are the main languages spoken
Government Type: Unitary Islamic absolute monarchy

People: The Omani Arabs of Oman

Omani Arab man
Population: 1,967,000
Estimated Foreign Workers Needed: 39+
Beliefs: The Omani Arabs of Oman are 0% Christian. That means out of their population of 1,967,000 there are little to no Christians at all.
Most Oman Arabs belong to the Ibadi sect of Islam, one of the religion's oldest and most traditional branches. Ibadi principles of puritanism and idealism have greatly influenced Arabs in surrounding countries.
The Great Sultan Qabus Mosque in Oman
History: During the 8th century BCE, it is believed that the Yaarub, the descendant of Qahtan, ruled the entire region of Yemen, including Oman. Wathil bin Himyar bin Abd-Shams (Saba) bin Yashjub (Yaman) bin Yarub bin Qahtan later ruled Oman. It is thus believed that the Yaarubah were the first settlers in Oman from Yemen.
Over centuries tribes from western Arabia settled, making a living by fishing, farming, herding or stock breeding. Arab migration to Oman started from northern-western and south-western Arabia and those who chose to settle had to compete with the indigenous population for the best arable land. When Arab tribes started to migrate to Oman, there were two groups. One group, a segment of the Azd tribe migrated from Yemen in A.D. 120/200 following the collapse of Marib Dam, while the other group migrated centuries before the birth of Islam from Nejd (what later is Saudi Arabia), named Nizari. Other historians believe that the Yaarubah from Qahtan which belong to an older branch, were the first settlers of Oman from Yemen, and then came the Azd.
The Azd settlers in Oman are descendants of Nasr bin Azd and were later known as "the Al-Azd of Oman". 70 years after the first Azd migration, another branch of Alazdi under Malik bin Fahm, the founder of Kingdom of Tanukhites on the west of Euphrates, is believed to have settled. According to Al-Kalbi, Malik bin Fahm was the first settler of Alazd. He is said to have first settled in Qalhat. By this account, Malik, with an armed force of more than 6000 men and horses, fought against the Marzban, who served a Persian king in the battle of Salut and eventually defeated the Persian forces. This account is semi-legendary and seems to condense centuries of migration and conflict into a story of two campaigns that exaggerate the success of the Arabs. The account may represent an amalgamation of traditions from not only the Arab tribes but also the region's original inhabitants.
In the 7th century CE, Omanis came in contact with and accepted Islam. The conversion of Omanis to Islam is ascribed to Amr ibn al-As, who was sent by the prophet Muhammad during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha (Hisma). Amer was dispatched to meet with Jaifer and Abd, the sons of Julanda who ruled Oman. They appear to have readily embraced Islam.
Omani Azd used to travel to Basra for trade, which was a centre of Islam, during the Umayyad empire. Omani Azd were granted a section of Basra, where they could settle and attend to their needs. Some of the Omani Azd who settled in Basra became merchants and, under their leader Muhallab bin Abi Sufrah, started to expand their influence of power eastwards towards Khorasan. Ibadhi Islam originated in Basra through its founder, Abdullah ibn Ibadh, around the year 650 CE; the Omani Azd in Iraq would subsequently adopt this as their predominant faith. Later, Al-hajjaj, the governor of Iraq, came into conflict with the Ibadhis, which forced them back to Oman. Among those who returned was the scholar Jaber bin Zaid. His return (and the return of other scholars) enhanced the Ibadhi movement. Alhajjaj made an attempt to subjugate Oman, then ruled by Suleiman and Said (the sons of Abbad bin Julanda). Alhajjaj dispatched Mujjaah bin Shiwah, who was confronted by Said bin Abbad. This confrontation devastated Said's army, after which he and his forces retreated to the Jebel Akhdar (mountains). Mujjaah and his forces went after Said, successfully flushing them out from hiding in Wadi Mastall. Mujjaah later moved towards the coast, where he confronted Suleiman bin Abbad. The battle was won by Suleiman's forces. Alhajjaj sent another force (under Abdulrahman bin Suleiman); he eventually won the war, taking over the governance of Oman.
The first elective Imamate of Oman is believed to have been established after the fall of the Umayyad Dynasty in 750/755 AD, when Janaħ bin ʕibadah Alħinnawi was elected. Other scholars claim that Janaħ bin Ibadah served as a Wāli (governor) under the Umayyad dynasty (and later ratified the Imamate), and that Julanda bin Masud was the first elected Imam of Oman, in A.D. 751. The first Imamate reached its peak power in the 9th century A.D. The Imamate established a maritime empire whose fleet controlled the Gulf, during a time when trade with the Abbasid Dynasty, the Far East, and Africa flourished. The authority of the Imams started to decline due to power struggles, the interventions of Abbasid, and the rise of the Seljuk Empire.
During the 11th and 12th centuries, the Omani coast was in the sphere of influence of the Seljuk Empire. They were expelled in 1154, when the Nabhani dynasty came to power. The Nabhanis ruled as muluk, or kings, while the Imams were reduced to largely symbolic significance. The capital of the dynasty was Bahla. The Banu Nabhan controlled the trade in frankincense on the overland route via Sohar to the Yabrin oasis, and then north to Bahrain, Baghdad and Damascus. The mango-tree was introduced to Oman during the time of Nabhani dynasty, by ElFellah bin Muhsin. The Nabhani dynasty started to deteriorate in 1507 when Portuguese colonisers captured the coastal city of Muscat, and gradually extended their control along the coast up to Sohar in the north and down to Sur in the southeast. Other historians argue that the Nabhani dynasty ended earlier in A.D. 1435 when conflicts between the dynasty and Alhinawis arose, which led to the restoration of the elective Imamate.
In 1552 an Ottoman fleet captured the fort in Muscat, during their fight for control of the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean, and departed after destroying the surroundings of the fortress. Later in the 17th century, using its bases in Oman, Portugal engaged in the largest naval battle ever fought in the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese force fought against a combined armada of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and English East India Company support by the Safavid empire. The result of the battle was a draw and resulted in the loss of Portuguese influence in the Gulf. Cities were sketched in the 17th century and appear in the António Bocarro Book of fortress
The Ottoman Empire temporarily captured Muscat from the Portuguese again in 1581 and held it until 1588. During the 17th century, the Omanis were reunited by the Yaruba Imams. Nasir bin Murshid became the first Yaarubah Imam in 1624, when he was elected in Rustaq. Nasir's energy and perseverance is believed to have earned him the election. Imam Nasir and his successor succeeded in the 1650s in expelling the Portuguese from their coastal domains in Oman. The Omanis over time established a maritime empire that pursued the Portuguese and expelled them from all their possessions in East Africa, which were then incorporated into the Omani domains. To capture Zanzibar Saif bin Sultan, the Imam of Oman, pressed down the Swahili Coast. An obstacle to his progress was Fort Jesus, housing the garrison of a Portuguese settlement at Mombasa. After a two year siege, the fort fell to Imam Saif bin Sultan in 1698. Saif bin Sultan occupied Bahrain in 1700. The rivalry within the house of Yaruba over power after the death of Imam Sultan in 1718 weakened the dynasty. With the power of the Yaruba Dynasty dwindling, Imam Saif bin Sultan II eventually asked for help against his rivals from Nader Shah of Persia. A Persian force arrived in March 1737 to aid Saif. From their base at Julfar, the Persian forces eventually rebelled against the Yaruba in 1743. The Persian empire then tried to take possession of the coast of Oman until 1747.
After the Omanis expelled the Persians, Ahmed bin Sa'id Albusaidi in 1749 became the elected Imam of Oman, with Rustaq serving as the capital. Since the revival of the Imamate with the Yaruba dynasty, the Omanis continued with the elective system and, provided that the person is deemed qualified, gave preference to a member of the ruling family. Following Imam Ahmed's death in 1783, his son, Said bin Ahmed became the elected Imam. His son, Seyyid Hamed bin Said, overthrew the representative of his father the Imam in Muscat and obtained the possession of Muscat fortress. Hamed ruled as "Seyyid". Afterwards, Seyyid Sultan bin Ahmed, the uncle of Seyyid Hamed, took over power. Seyyid Said bin Sultan succeeded Sultan bin Ahmed. During the entire 19th century, in addition to Imam Said bin Ahmed who retained the title until he died in 1803, Azzan bin Qais was the only elected Imam of Oman. His rule started in 1868. The British refused to accept Imam Azzan as a ruler, as he was viewed as inimical to their interests. This view played an instrumental role in supporting the deposition of Imam Azzan in 1871 by his cousin, Sayyid Turki, a son of the late Sayyid Said bin Sultan, and brother of Sultan Barghash of Zanzibar, who Britain deemed to be more acceptable.
Oman's Imam Sultan, defeated ruler of Muscat, was granted sovereignty over Gwadar, an area of what later is Pakistan. Gwadar was a part of Oman from 1783 to 1958. This coastal city is located in the Makran region of what is later the far southwestern corner of Pakistan, near what is later the border of Iran, at the mouth of the Gulf of Oman.
The British empire was keen to dominate southeast Arabia to stifle the growing power of other European states and to curb the Omani maritime power that grew during the 17th century. The British empire over time, starting from the 18th century, began to establish a series of treaties with the sultans with the objective of advancing British political and economic interest in Muscat, while granting the sultans military protection. In 1798, the first treaty between the British East India Company and the Albusaidi dynasty was signed by Sayyid Sultan bin Ahmed. The treaty aimed to block commercial competition of the French and the Dutch as well as obtain a concession to build a British factory at Bandar Abbas. A second treaty was signed in 1800, which stipulated that a British representative shall reside at the port of Muscat and manage all external affairs with other states. As the Omani Empire weakened, the British influence over Muscat grew throughout the nineteenth century.
In 1854, a deed of cession of the Omani Kuria Muria islands to Britain was signed by the sultan of Muscat and the British government. The British government achieved predominating control over Muscat, which, for the most part, impeded competition from other nations. Between 1862 and 1892, the Political Residents, Lewis Pelly and Edward Ross, played an instrumental role in securing British supremacy over the Persian Gulf and Muscat by a system of indirect governance. By the end of the 19th century, and with the loss of its African dominions and its revenues, British influence increased to the point that the sultans became dependent on British loans and signed declarations to consult the British government on all important matters. The Sultanate thus came de facto under the British sphere.
Zanzibar was a property as the main slave market of the Swahili Coast as well as being a producer of cloves, and became an increasingly important part of the Omani empire, a fact reflected by the decision of the Sayyid Sa'id bin Sultan, to make it the capital of the empire in 1837. Sa'id built palaces and gardens in Zanzibar. Rivalry between his two sons was resolved, with the help of forceful British diplomacy, when one of them, Majid, succeeded to Zanzibar and to the Omani domains on the Swahili Coast. The other son, Thuwaini, inherited Oman and the Asian domains. Zanzibar's influences in the Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean indirectly introduced Omani customs to the Comorian culture. These influences include clothing traditions and wedding ceremonies. In 1856, under British arbitration, Zanzibar and Muscat became two sultanates.
The British imperial development over Muscat and Oman during the 19th century led to the renewed revival of the cause of the Imamate in the interior of Oman, which has appeared in cycles for more than 1,200 years. The British Political Agent, who resided in Muscat, owed the alienation of the interior of Oman to the influence of the British government over Muscat, which he described as being completely self-interested and without any regard to the social and political conditions of the locals. In 1913, Imam Salim Alkharusi instigated an anti-Muscat rebellion that lasted until 1920 when the Sultanate established peace with the Imamate by signing the Treaty of Seeb. The treaty was brokered by Britain, which had no economic interest in the interior of Oman during that point of time. The treaty granted autonomous rule to the Imamate in the interior of Oman and recognized the sovereignty of the coast of Oman, the Sultanate of Muscat. In 1920, Imam Salim Alkharusi died and Muhammad Alkhalili was elected.
On 10 January 1923, an agreement between the Sultanate and the British government was signed in which the Sultanate had to consult with the British political agent residing in Muscat and obtain the approval of the High Government of India to extract oil in the Sultanate. On 31 July 1928, the Red Line Agreement was signed between Anglo-Persian Company (later renamed British Petroleum), Royal Dutch/Shell, Compagnie Française des Pétroles (later renamed Total), Near East Development Corporation (later renamed ExxonMobil) and Calouste Gulbenkian (an Armenian businessman) to collectively produce oil in the post-Ottoman Empire region, which included the Arabian peninsula, with each of the 4 companies holding 23.75% of the shares while Calouste Gulbenkian held the remaining 5% shares. The agreement stipulated that none of the signatories was allowed to pursue the establishment of oil concessions within the agreed on area without including all other stakeholders. In 1929, the members of the agreement established Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC). On 13 November 1931, Sultan Taimur bin Faisal abdicated
Said bin Taimur became the sultan of Muscat officially on 10 February 1932. The rule of sultan Said bin Taimur was backed by the British government, and has been characterised as being feudal, reactionary and isolationist. The British government maintained administrative control over the Sultanate as the defence secretary and chief of intelligence, chief adviser to the sultan and all ministers except for one were British. In 1937, an agreement between the sultan and Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC), a consortium of oil companies that was 23.75% British owned, was signed to grant oil concessions to IPC. After failing to discover oil in the Sultanate, IPC was interested in some promising geological formations near Fahud, an area located within the Imamate. IPC offered financial support to the sultan to raise an armed force against any potential resistance by the Imamate.
In 1955, the exclave coastal Makran strip acceded to Pakistan and was made a district of its Balochistan province, while Gwadar remained in Oman. On 8 September 1958, Pakistan purchased the Gwadar enclave from Oman for US$3 million.
Sultan Said bin Taimur expressed his interest in occupying the Imamate after the death of Imam Alkhalili, thus taking advantage of any potential instability that might occur within the Imamate when elections were due, to the British government. The British political agent in Muscat believed that the only method of gaining access to the oil reserves in the interior was by assisting the sultan in taking over the Imamate. In 1946, the British government offered arms and ammunition, auxiliary supplies and officers to prepare the sultan to attack the interior of Oman. In May 1954, Imam Alkhalili died and Ghalib Alhinai was elected Imam.
In December 1955, Sultan Said bin Taimur sent troops of the Muscat and Oman Field Force to occupy the centres, including Nizwa, the capital of the Imamate of Oman, and Ibri. The Omanis in the interior led by Imam Ghalib Alhinai, Talib Alhinai, the brother of the Imam and the Wali (governor) of Rustaq, and Suleiman bin Hamyar, who was the Wali (governor) of Jebel Akhdar, defended the Imamate in the Jebel Akhdar War against British-backed attacks by the Sultanate. In July 1957, the Sultan's forces were withdrawing, and were repeatedly ambushed, sustaining casualties. Sultan Said, with the intervention of British infantry (two companies of the Cameronians), armoured car detachments from the British Army and RAF aircraft, was able to suppress the rebellion. The Imamate's forces retreated to the inaccessible Jebel Akhdar.
Colonel David Smiley, who had been seconded to organise the Sultan's Armed Forces, managed to isolate the mountain in autumn 1958 and found a route to the plateau from Wadi Bani Kharus. On 4 August 1957, the British Foreign Secretary gave the approval to carry out air strikes without prior warning to the locals residing in the interior of Oman. Between July and December 1958, the British RAF made 1,635 raids, dropping 1,094 tons and firing 900 rockets at the interior of Oman targeting insurgents, mountain top villages, water channels and crops. On 27 January 1959, the Sultanate's forces occupied the mountain in an operation. Imam Ghalib, his brother Talib and Sulaiman managed to escape to Saudi Arabia, where the Imamate's cause was promoted until the 1970s. The exiled partisans of the abolished Imamate of Oman presented the case of Oman to the Arab League and the United Nations. On 11 December 1963, the UN General Assembly decided to establish an Ad-Hoc Committee on Oman to study the 'Question of Oman' and report back to the General Assembly.The UN General Assembly adopted the 'Question of Oman' resolution in 1965, 1966 and again in 1967 that called upon the British government to cease all repressive action against the locals, end British control over Oman and reaffirmed the inalienable right of the Omani people to self-determination and independence.
After deposing his father in 1970, Sultan Qaboos opened up the country, embarked on economic reforms, and followed a policy of modernisation marked by increased spending on health, education and welfare. Slavery was outlawed in 1970.
In 2002, voting rights were extended to all citizens over the age of 21, and the first elections to the Consultative Assembly under the rules were held in 2003. In 2004, the Sultan appointed a female minister with portfolio, Sheikha Aisha bint Khalfan bin Jameel al-Sayabiyah. She was appointed to the post of National Authority for Industrial Craftsmanship, an office that attempts to preserve and promote Oman's traditional crafts and stimulate industry. The Sultan continued to rule by decree. Nearly 100 suspected Islamists were arrested in 2005 and 31 people were convicted of trying to overthrow the government. They were ultimately pardoned in June of the same year.
Inspired by the Arab Spring uprisings that were taking place throughout the region, protests occurred during months of 2011. While they did not call for the ousting of the regime, demonstrators demanded political reforms, improved living conditions and the creation of more jobs. They were dispersed by riot police in February 2011. Sultan Qaboos reacted by promising jobs and benefits. In October 2011, elections were held to the Consultative Assembly, to which Sultan Qaboos promised greater powers. The following year, the government began a crackdown on internet criticism. In September 2012, trials began of 'activists' accused of posting "abusive and provocative" criticism of the government online. 6 were given jail terms of 12–18 months and fines of around $2,500 each.
Qaboos, the Arab world's longest-serving ruler, died on 10 January 2020, and the government declared 40 days of national mourning. He was buried the next day. On 11 January 2020, Qaboos was succeeded by his first cousin Sultan Haitham bin Tariq.
Nakhal Fort, one of the best-preserved forts in Oman.
Culture: Typical qualification that all people groups can't be summed up in small paragraphs and this is an over generalization.
The Omani Arabs live in extended family units. Their society is patriarchal, or male-dominated. The men seldom abuse this authority because they believe that their families should obey them out of respect rather than fear. Also, there are clearly defined roles for both sexes. Even the children are given gender-specific duties. The men work outside in the fields while women work in the homes. Men and women often eat separately and never pray together. While men worship at mosques, women attend ceremonies conducted at home by female religious leaders. Marriages are generally pre-arranged by the parents. Children are a considered the family's greatest asset because they provide the parents with additional laborers and social security.
An Omani Souq
Cuisine: The cuisine of Oman uses spices and marinades to complete a dish, which usually consists of chicken, fish, and lamb. Unlike that of many other Asian nations, Omani cuisine is not spicy, and varies regionally. Everyday meals generally have components such as rice, a wide variety of soups, salad, curry, and fresh vegetables. For dessert, a known Omani sweet Omani halwa is usually served. This is usually served before the consumption of kahwa, a preparation of coffee with cardamom, which is very popular and remains a symbol of hospitality. Other popular beverages include tea, laban (a kind of salty buttermilk), yoghurt drinks, and soft drinks like mountain dew.
Omani Halwa
Prayer Request:
Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God for them is that they may be saved. (Romans 10:1)
Here are the previous weeks threads on the UPG of the Week for Reformed from 2023 (plus a few from 2022 so this one post isn't so lonely). To save some space on these, all UPG posts made 2019-now are here, I will try to keep this current.
People Group Country Continent Date Posted Beliefs
Omani Arabs Oman Asia 06/05/2023 Islam
Turks Bulgaria Europe 05/22/2023 Islam
Kinnara Sri Lanka Asia 05/15/2023 Buddhism***
Yonaguni Japan Asia 05/08/2023 Animism
Persian Iran Asia 04/10/2023 Islam
Ngazidja Comorian Comoros Africa 04/03/2023 Islam
Uyghur (2nd) China Asia 03/27/2023 Islam
Aimaq Afghanistan Asia 03/20/2023 Islam
Shughni Tajikistan Asia 03/13/2023 Islam
Punjabi Canada North America 03/06/2023 Sikhism
Kurds Turkey Asia** 02/13/2023 Islam***
Krymchak Ukraine* Europe** 02/06/2023 Judaism
Talysh Azerbaijan Asia** 01/30/2023 Islam
Shan Myanmar Asia 01/23/2023 Buddhism***
Shaikh - 2nd post Bangladesh Asia 01/09/2023 Islam
Hindi United States North America 12/19/2022 Hinduism
Somali Finland Europe 12/05/2022 Islam
Hemshin Turkey Asia** 11/28/2022 Islam
Waorani (Reached) Ecuador South America 11/21/2022 Christianity
* Tibet belongs to Tibet, not China.
** Russia/Turkey/etc is Europe but also Asia so...
*** this likely is not the true religion that they worship, but rather they have a mixture of what is listed with other local religions, or they have embraced a liberal drift and are leaving faith entirely but this is their historical faith.
As always, if you have experience in this country or with this people group, feel free to comment or let me know and I will happily edit it so that we can better pray for these peoples! I shouldn't have to include this, but please don't come here to argue with people or to promote universalism. I am a moderator so we will see this if you do.
Here is a list of definitions in case you wonder what exactly I mean by words like "Unreached".
Here is a list of missions organizations that reach out to the world to do missions for the Glory of God.
submitted by partypastor to Reformed [link] [comments]

2023.06.05 16:31 Pyroski The War of 1839, Part V: The Battle Of Boston │ Pine & Liberty

The War of 1839, Part V: The Battle Of Boston │ Pine & Liberty
The Armistice & Prelude to the Battle of Boston
After the Battle of Cambridge and its subsequent capture, a six-week armistice was established, during which both sides prepared for the highly anticipated Battle of Boston. Winfield Scott, the commanding general who recognized the strategic importance of Boston in bringing an end to the war and achieving an American victory, mobilized troops from Vermont as well as the coastal regions of Connecticut and Rhode Island. These forces were deployed to Charlestown, Roxbury, and the recently captured Cambridge, fortifying the city fronts. With Britain's entry into the war, Rear Admiral Charles Stewart of the U.S. Navy grew concerned about potential efforts to liberate Massachusetts Bay and thus issued orders to send additional ships to the region.
As the United States geared up to launch an offensive on Boston, the region of New England, just like the rest of the nation, utilized the armistice period to diligently prepare for the impending battle. With reports indicating that the U.S. had assembled an army exceeding 18,000 troops, General Churchill, the commanding officer of the New England army, faced the urgent task of mobilizing a force of comparable size. He swiftly gathered troops stationed along the Vermont Border and in New Hampshire, deploying them to Boston. Additionally, Churchill coordinated with the Connecticut and New Hampshire militias, urging them to contribute their own forces to the defense of the state. In a voluntary show of support, Massachusetts also dispatched its militia to bolster the defense of Boston, the capital and largest city within the state.
Despite the arrival of additional troops from the North to support the defense of Boston, the Yankee forces were limited to a mere 10,000 soldiers. Their smaller numbers and inferior technology prompted Churchill to seek assistance from the British, who had originally planned to focus on liberating Vermont from American control. Churchill dispatched Major General Joseph K. Mansfield to Canada, urging the Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces in North America, Richard Downes Jackson, to send an army to Boston for support. Although Jackson had made efforts to establish a standing army in Canada after the Rebellions of 1837-1838 and had concerns about the implications of the War of 1839, his forces were still not strong enough to venture into New England at that time. However, he did manage to send a contingent of British regular army units and locally raised, numbering a combined 5,000.
Despite the armistice technically scheduled to end on April 12, 1843, Winfield Scott chose to postpone his invasion. He opted to deploy troops onto ships loaded at the Massachusetts Bay with the intention of executing a flanking maneuver from two sides of Boston. Scott believed this strategy would confuse and divide the Yankee Forces, making it easier for American forces to capture the city. Meanwhile, Churchill's forces remained on edge, anticipating an imminent American attack.
In the War of 1839, two commanding generals led the opposing forces. General Winfield Scott, on the left, commanded the United States forces, while General Sylvester Churchill, whose on the right, led the New England forces.
The Battle Of Boston
On Monday, April 17, 1843, Major General John E. Wool, under the orders of his superior, Winfield Scott, deployed vessels filled with soldiers to the ports of Boston. Yankee troops, during the armistice, swiftly noticed the gradual accumulation of troops and ships in Massachusetts Bay, allowing them to discern the intentions of Wool and the U.S. forces. Reacting promptly, the army, numbering nearly 3000, mobilized as the Yankees rushed to fortify the Boston ports and impede the entry of the ships. They strategically utilized established forts and defensive structures surrounding the ports to obstruct any attempts at access, while the soldiers positioned themselves in anticipation of the imminent arrival of the ships.
As the ships approached the ports, rowboats were launched to ferry the soldiers to land. A multitude of rowboats were deployed, and amid the gunfire from the opposing Yankee troops, a handful of boats met their demise. Nevertheless, undeterred by these challenges, the U.S. forces persevered and eventually reached several ports in Boston, including the Boston Harbor and Long Wharf. Upon disembarking, the American troops encountered fierce resistance from the Yankees. The defenders, familiar with the terrain and benefitting from defending their homeland, held their ground with resolute determination. They had meticulously prepared strategic positions and fortified their strongholds, impeding the advance of the U.S. troops.
With the arrival of more rowboats, carrying additional troops to the scene, the battle grew more intense. Despite the increasing number of enemy soldiers, the Yankees' familiarity with the area and their determination to defend their city presented significant challenges. The conflict was marked by chaos and intensity, with gunfire reverberating and smoke enveloping the battlefield. Despite initial setbacks and encountering strong resistance, the American troops displayed resilience. They fought bravely, steadily advancing and refusing to retreat. Gradually, they gained a foothold in the captured ports, establishing temporary strongholds amidst the tumult.
However, the Yankees were unwilling to surrender Boston easily. They launched counterattacks, employing guerrilla tactics and surprising the American positions. The U.S. troops found themselves engaged in fierce skirmishes, fighting street by street and block by block to maintain their position. The situation grew increasingly dire for the American forces as the Yankees launched a coordinated offensive, further heightening the intensity of the conflict.
The captured ports became fiercely contested, with the Yankees employing all available resources to push back the invaders. Reinforcements continued to arrive for both sides, escalating the intensity of the battle and further complicating the situation for the Americans. Despite their valiant efforts, the American troops faced mounting challenges and gradually found themselves pushed deeper into Boston. Fueled by an unwavering determination to defend their city, the Yankees fought ferociously, seemingly without bounds. The U.S. troops were forced into a defensive stance, regrouping and strategizing to minimize further losses while eagerly awaiting their own reinforcements. Nevertheless, as additional troops arrived from the Massachusetts Bay, the army managed to fend off further defeats, slowly reclaiming lost ground over the course of a week-long period.
The illustration captures the moment of Winfield Scott's triumphant entry into Boston. It portrays him leading his marching troops through the billowing smoke of artillery fire, symbolizing the continuous breach of fortifications. In the distance, Wool's forces are depicted, highlighting the chaotic scene within the city of Boston. The illustration also features U.S. ships stationed at the Massachusetts Bay, representing the blockade they have established, effectively sealing off the bay, from trade, while also serving to transport additional troops to aid in the invasion.
The streets of Boston transformed into a chaotic battleground, consumed by the fury of an ongoing battle. The U.S. forces clashed fiercely with the Yankees, fiercely defending their positions while launching relentless offensives, showcasing an unwavering resolve. For a span of two grueling days, the narrow alleys and barricaded streets of Boston echoed with the sounds of brutal gunfire. Each inch of the ground became a fiercely contested territory as the U.S. forces strategically advanced, employing a range of tactics to penetrate the Yankee defenses. Nevertheless, the Yankees, deeply entrenched and fortified within the city, offered staunch resistance, refusing to retreat to the advancing forces.
However, the Yankee troops could only hold on for a limited time as the U.S. forces eventually dislodged them, pushing them into a retreat through the streets of Boston. Once the Yankees were finally dislodged, the U.S. troops began to make significant progress in capturing Boston. Winfield Scott, recognizing the heavy casualties suffered by both sides during the intense street combat of the past two days, reorganized his troops.
Understanding the importance of minimizing casualties while ensuring success, Scott adjusted his plan to adopt a more cautious approach. He believed that slowly advancing into Boston, as originally intended, would be the most effective strategy. This involved a careful plan of bombardment and gradual advances to weaken the defenses and compel a surrender, and by implementing this calculated approach, Scott aimed to reduce the loss of lives and secure victory.
During the period spanning late April to early May, the U.S. Army, under the leadership of Winfield Scott, made significant progress in their endeavor to capture Boston. Operating from the city's northern region, Scott's forces successfully seized prominent structures like the Massachusetts State House, Quincy Market, and Faneuil Hall. However, their attempts to join forces with John E. Wool's army and advance collaboratively were thwarted by the formidable resistance of the Yankee troops, who effectively impeded their movements. Despite these setbacks, Scott and the U.S. troops maintained an advantage in the battle.
In contrast to the successes of Scott's forces, John E. Wool's attack from the Massachusetts Bay yielded less favorable results. Although Wool's army successfully gained control of the coastal areas, their progress beyond that point was severely restricted. The formidable Yankee troops posed a significant challenge, effectively impeding Wool's forces from making substantial advancements into the heart of Boston., and despite their initial victories along the coast, the strong resistance encountered from the Yankees thwarted their momentum and hindered their ability to penetrate further into the city.
Depiction of the Battle of Boston, conveying General Winfield Scott rallied his troops on the left, urging them to press further into the city. Meanwhile, Yankee defenders on the right unleashed a barrage of artillery fire, determined to repel the invaders.
Despite the determined efforts of the Yankees in holding back Major General John E. Wool's invading forces and impeding Commanding General Winfield Scott's grand plan, the U.S. forces continued to advance into Boston, albeit at a slower pace. Sylvester Churchill, mindful of the heavy casualties suffered and the stretched-thin defenses across the northern and Massachusetts Bay region, grew increasingly concerned. Recognizing the urgency of the situation, Churchill dispatched Colonel George Wright to request additional reinforcements from Richard Downes Jackson, who had already provided troops to support the ongoing battle.
Although Jackson had a limited timeframe of less than two months to mobilize troops, he promptly responded to Britain's entry into the conflict by gradually dispatching additional units to Boston as requested by Churchill. His objective was to establish a fully equipped standing army capable of liberating Vermont from American control, as he believed the Yankees no longer required further reinforcements. However, upon receiving information from Wright about the dire situation, the Commander-in-Chief of the British Forces in North America adjusted his plan. He chose to postpone his campaign in order to deploy several units to accompany Wright back to Boston, as well as strengthen army.
As evening fell, Wright arrived with an additional contingent of nearly 4,500 troops, tipping the scales in favor of New England and its allies for the first time in the battle. The chaotic scene that greeted them showcased the ongoing struggle for Boston, characterized by the thunderous exchange of gunfire from both opposing sides. Recognizing the significance of the reinforcements, Sylvester Churchill wasted no time and swiftly instructed them to advance northward towards the position where Gaines and Scott's forces were stationed. This area had become the epicenter of the most intense fighting in Boston, where the allied forces were fiercely engaged.
From April 2nd to 8th, Scott and Wool, two American military leaders, embarked on a slow and cautious advance into the city of Boston. Meanwhile, the British forces under the command of Churchill, alongside their Yankee allies, employed traditional linear and artillery tactics to counter the American offensive. Their strategy aimed to create a formidable defense against the advancing American troops.
In response to the British tactics, William Rowan, leading a contingent of British and Canadian troops, adopted a different approach. They engaged in hit-and-run tactics, utilizing the urban environment to their advantage, much like their Yankee counterparts. By constantly shifting their positions and exploiting the city's features, Rowan's forces effectively frustrated the American attempts to gain ground.
Despite their efforts, Scott and his forces found themselves gradually losing territory over the course of six days. Faced with the prospect of defeat, Scott resorted to employing innovative tactics to prevent further losses and regain the ground they had surrendered. Their strategies included surprise attacks, ambushes, and other unconventional methods, aiming to turn the tide of the battle in their favor. Unfortunately, Scott's attempts to reverse the situation proved unsuccessful. Despite the setbacks, the American forces demonstrated resilience and an unwavering determination not to surrender. They refused to accept defeat and continued their resistance against the occupying British and Canadian troops.
Meanwhile, with less of a grasp on Boston than Winfield Scott and Edmund P. Gaines, Wool's forces would similarly suffer major blows in Boston, as the reinforcements allowed Yankee forces at the coast to focus on warding off Wool's army. As they lost gradual control over the parts they once captured, their woes would be further exasperated as the royal navy and yankee forces would recapture the port, in the Second Battle of the Massachusetts Bay. Gradually, as their presence weakened, as their troops pushed further towards the ports, and with no retreat in mind, as a result of the newly liberated bay, John E. Wool made the difficult decision to surrender. Churchill would take Wool and the army as prisoners, hoping to leverage them as a bargain for a treaty, to end the bloody conflict.
Sir William Rowan engages in discussions with a Yankee official to his left, while the combined British-Canadian forces march in unison down the streets of Boston, headed towards American forces in the north.
Despite the challenging circumstances and recent defeats faced by General Winfield Scott's army, he initially showed reluctance to surrender. However, the situation changed when news reached him of the Navy's defeat in the Second Battle of Massachusetts Bay, inflicted by the Royal Navy under Percival's command, and the surrender of General John E. Wool and his forces, who became prisoners of war. These developments, coupled with Scott's own army experiencing a string of defeats, ultimately led him to reconsider his position. Consequently, he dispatched a soldier to convey his willingness to enter into negotiations for surrender.
After three days of intense negotiations, on April 11th, 1843, Winfield Scott, representing the United States, finally agreed to surrender. The Treaty of Boston was subsequently signed, resulting in several concessions being made by both parties involved:
  • The armistice lasted only two weeks, as both Churchill and the allied forces, as well as Winfield Scott and the U.S. forces, were determined to press on with the war following the Battle of Boston, despite its devastating effects. The allied forces sought to maintain their momentum and reverse the tide of the war, while the U.S. forces aimed to make up for their defeat in Boston.
  • The American troops' withdrawal from Boston and the subsequent withdrawal of the remaining ships in the Massachusetts Bay.
  • The liberation of John E. Wool's forces, as well as the release of captured Yankee and British-Canadian troops during the Battle of Boston and the Massachusetts Campaign.
Second Battle of Massachusetts Bay
In the initial engagement, the U.S. Navy strategically positioned itself in Narragansett Bay in collaboration with Commanding General Winfield Scott and Rear Admiral Charles Stewart, aiming to implement an effective blockade strategy. On February 9th, Rear Admiral Charles Stewart initiated the attack by unleashing a relentless naval bombardment with the goal of cutting off the supply lines to Boston and Quincy. The American fleet, led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry, utilized their superior firepower and extended range to overwhelm the enemy's defenses. After four days of intense fighting, Rear Admiral Percival, overwhelmed by the presence and firepower of the American Navy, ordered a retreat on February 13th, resulting in the establishment of a blockade of Massachusetts Bay.
Anticipating an attack on Boston, Winfield Scott and Charles Stewart capitalized on their position in the bay to embark U.S. troops onto ships in Massachusetts Bay. This strategic maneuver facilitated a two-pronged invasion strategy, positioning American forces to strike from both the Massachusetts Bay coastline and the flanks of Boston. The battle was initiated by U.S. ships in the bay, which deployed soldiers into Boston and maintained a continuous presence throughout much of the conflict.
With the Americans firmly established in Massachusetts Bay, Rear Admiral John C. Percival of the New England Navy collaborated with Sir Charles Adam, the Commander-in-Chief of the North America and West Indies Station, with the joint objective of regaining control of the bay and cutting off Wool's forces from receiving reinforcements. Their aim was to weaken the U.S. forces on the ground and facilitate their defeat.
On May 4th, the battle unfolded between Percival and Adam's forces against the U.S. forces, with the allied forces launching their attack from the Bays of Penobscot and Fundy, respectively. This three-day conflict was marked by Rear Admiral "Mad" Jack Percival initiating a relentless naval bombardment. A formidable fleet, comprising both Yankee and Royal Navy forces, including steam-powered warships armed with heavy cannons, arrived in the bay with the objective of liberating Massachusetts Bay from American presence. The naval bombardment unleashed a relentless barrage of cannon fire and explosive shells upon the enemy's ships and fortifications. Strategically positioned, the allied warships utilized their superior firepower, numerical advantage, and extended range to wreak havoc on the enemy's defenses.
Under the command of Rear Admiral John C. Percival, the Yankee forces fought fiercely against the American ships, employing a more aggressive strategy compared to their Royal Navy allies. The intense naval bombardment took a toll on the ships engaged in battle. After three days of relentless fighting, on February 7th, Rear Admiral Stewart ordered a retreat. The Yankee and Royal Navy vessels swiftly filled the void, finally liberating Massachusetts Bay and Boston from American presence in the waters. Additionally, this meant that Wool's forces were deprived of potential reinforcements, further weakening their position.
The depiction of the Second Battle of Boston portrays an American vessel succumbing to the overwhelming barrage of cannon-fire unleashed by both the Royal Navy and Yankee vessels.
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